While we are usually more than capable of taking single claims and whole arguments or explanations from what we read, and probably are learning the art of coming away from research with more questions, the third and fourth categories are tricky. Summarising an entire piece of written work does not involve noting down individual bits and pieces ('key points', facts, main conclusions) but requires that you understand the entirety of the work and then, in your own words, write a short argument that sums up what the author is saying (perhaps using the analytical structure format). Identifying the assumptions and values that underlie a text is equally tricky and demands, at the very least, that you think carefully about the sorts of questions covered in exercise 8.3.

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