Exercise

a 'drinking milk makes some people feel sick'. This direct claim has been made by the doctor. The actual meaning of the entire claim is that I have been told this claim.

b 'I drink milk' 'I feel sick'. There are two claims here, effectively, combined to make a propositional super-claim, c 'a person comes to a doctor and says "If I drink milk, then I feel sick'" and 'the doctor will diagnose that person as lactose-intolerant'. These are the two claims in the if/then statement; note also that the first claim is itself an indirect claim, like (a).

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