Claim 2 requires a claim such as 'We should understand what is happening now'. In the context of a class of first-year university students (caught up in their own concerns, and finding and discovering themselves at university), I would probably explicitly establish this relevance, allowing me to argue for the truth of this additional framing premise (which is in itself doubtful for these students, in my experience) and also to show clearly the relevance of the first premise. I would not, however, make such an explicit argument for an audience of academics who themselves study the contemporary world.

Claim 3 requires a claim such as 'Stories of the fight for democracy and justice in the past can help us to maintain and improve democracy and justice in the present' (which, one assumes, is what we want to do). In the context of writing an article for a readership of left-wing historians, for example (a group whose professional life involves precisely the activity that this premise describes), I would not include this claim explicitly. For non-historians, however, I would explicitly include it to make my argument clear.

Claim 4 requires a claim such as 'It is important to learn how to write essays'. Professional historical researchers, although they know much about history and, on reflection, would accept this new claim, would not, in my experience, immediately see the relevance 0/claim 4 to the conclusion and would thus need the additional claim to make the relevance explicit. In the context of talking to high-school history teachers, however, I would probably not include it explicitly.

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