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theorists had made such conclusions. When looking for evidence, then, we are not looking for a specific 'thing' but simply the material that will become the majority of our premises.

Finally, the sort of information that is most important (yet least often considered) is not actually stated in most books and articles. It remains implied, waiting within texts to be inferred by their readers. It concerns the values and attitudes of the authors of what you read and hear. These values include judgments about which actions are good and which are bad. For example, many commentators on nationalism believe that too much national pride is bad because it promotes conflict and competition. Unless we understand this value system, we cannot interpret and respond to what is written within it. We cannot understand the range of possible opinions on nationalism unless we understand that the same 'facts' (say, one particular advertisement) may lead to dramatically different conclusions when interpreted from different political or ethical standpoints. Moreover, values can also relate to 'correct' ways of investigating a problem. If we do a socio-economic analysis of television advertising in relation to the ways that large companies profit from calling upon consumers' patriotism, then, implicitly, we are making a value judgment that it is inappropriate to use a different approach (say, a psychological one that concentrates solely on how an individual responds to advertisements).

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