Note that, in this example, we are not engaging in an analysis of the fact that Rickard has made this claim. That is why we separate the authority from the substantive claim it is supporting. If we were trying to show why Rickard was right or wrong to make it, then we would combine the claims together and write: 'Rickard has argued that Australian history is marked by considerable conflict and tension over the competing interests of labour and capital'. By doing so, we would be starting to analyse the fact that Rickard has made that argument. In simple use of authority, by contrast, the authority and the claim that is relying on it have the same logical connection as that by which claims prove or show another claim. Hence it is appropriate to diagram the relationship using the arrow.
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