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either implicitly or explicitly. For example, to support the conclusion that 'The problem of unemployment in a late capitalist economy demands government regulation of the labour market' carries with it a similar range of issues as the last example. Yet it also concerns further issues regarding the values implicit in the claim. Is unemployment necessarily a problem? It would not be implausible to imagine that some people would favour higher unemployment (as, for example, a way of keeping wage costs down). The trick is to be aware of the connotations of our conclusions—those less obvious meanings and implications, which even though they are not explicit in the stated claim, nevertheless require explanation or argument. Such an awareness is the hallmark of effective reasoning. Once again, it is the context (audience, general expectations, and so on) that makes clear what connotations we might need to consider. Arguments about Aboriginal—European relations, for example, now occur in a context that is completely different to that of thirty years ago, precisely because general knowledge among Australians about this issue has changed and the attitudes towards Aboriginal people among white

It is rare to find a claim that is so simple in what it asserts about the world that it can be easily supported by one or two premises; what is more, when explaining why an event has occurred, the reasons on which our explanation are based are likely to be highly complex. Hence, as well as giving depth to each individual reason (expressed as a chain of premises), we also need to give a broad argument when required. Such breadth ensures that reasoning is not rendered ineffective by oversimplification. There is, of course, no general rule regarding how much information should be given in support of a conclusion: it depends on the conclusion and the context. No reason should be given that is irrelevant to the conclusion. Yet we should not exclude relevant information; otherwise we will not deal

The need for breadth is particularly evident in reasoning about why things have happened or why they might in future happen (cause and effect). For example, if we were to argue that 'Australia's current rate of immigration is too low', we could develop a series of arguments about the effects of low immigration, drawing on various aspects of this topic. Without at the moment unpacking them into complete premises, there are at least four different 'reasons':

a A larger population provides significant economic benefits, c Higher immigration is a sign to the rest of the world that Australia is d Higher immigration will increase Australia's defence capabilities.

Each reason concerns a different aspect of the problem—a different point that, independently, supports the conclusion. Why would a collection of reasons be

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