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exploit national patriotism and sentiment to further their own profit-making goals. Whether we agree or disagree with this conclusion, whether we can refute it or not, we can nevertheless try to understand why he might have made such a conclusion. We can ask, what is the political and intellectual position that is implied by such claims? From the overall thrust of Turner's analysis, we judge that he is opposed to unfettered capitalism, seeking instead a greater degree of regulation in the national interest. In making this judgment, we can understand the assumptions that underlie the information in Turner's book, and the context in which it was written and presented to us. Without such analysis, you will always tend to respond to reasoning from your own point of view, without understanding why others might disagree with you. Whether or not you wish to change their minds or accept their right to be different is immaterial: neither goal can be achieved if you do not know

Finally, there are occasions on which we take nothing away from what we are reading or observing—except more questions! This outcome may be frustrating at times, but if we are seeking to be smart thinkers, we must be prepared to delve deeply into an issue and not rush too quickly to a satisfying answer. Remember analysis continues through every stage of research, but smart thinkers are aware of this and draw encouragement from the way in which a book that tells you nothing' might prompt the question 'Why does it not tell me anything?'. And, further, you can ask if the problem is with the book, with you, or perhaps with your original set

Using a long piece of written work that you are reading at the moment, practise getting each of the five possible outcomes just discussed. Make sure that, 111 each case, you express your answers in the analytical structure format (except, of course, for the last category, for which you will simply have a list of further

We have seen in previous chapters how the context in which we create our texts of reasoning are crucial in making successful judgments about the effectiveness of our arguments and explanations. In this chapter, we have concentrated on learning about the process of searching for knowledge in a way that allows us to take the information from one context (someone else's text) and put it into another context (our text). The context influences our interpretation and understanding of information, and so if we do not understand and recognise these contexts, our analysis will not be sound. Knowledge, then, needs to be understood generically, not as specific 'facts' or issues, but as a series of classes and types that relate to our research project. The sources from which it comes, again, must be analysed for the way they create and constrain that

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