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conclusion is obvious. In fact, from the point of view of the customer, it is not, and thus the reasoning used by the technician is ineffective.

By definition, all reasoning depends at some point or another on assumptions that give rise to implied claims. So, practically speaking, effective reasoning does not require that there be no implied premises. But it does require that we be well aware of the claims that we do leave out. First, if we do not recognise our own implied premises, then we may fail to judge accurately if they are true or not; second, we may fail to communicate our message to someone else who does not share our assumptions. This last point is particularly important. Our decisions about using implied premises can only be guided by what we expect our audience to know, and what we know, about the context of our reasoning. For example, academic essays and reports are usually designed precisely to test students' abilities to avoid making assumptions, and so, we would not want to leave many implied premises in this context, even though we might assume our audience (the assessors) do know the claims we are making.

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