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students believe themselves to be'—we can see that students probably fail to reference effectively because they are not motivated by genuine self-interest as writers, but instead by the dubious and failure-prone motivation of obedience.

The problem with which I began this paper, namely the need to ensure that students learn, quickly, the methods and skills of correct referencing, is often addressed at university simply in a technical fashion. But, in light of the very brief analysis of the student-as-student (rather than student-as-writer) that I have just proposed, the real solution lies in a combination of effective technical help and, at least as importantly, a conscious and supportive effort to encourage students to think in new ways about themselves and the relationship they have to their teachers. Unless a relationship can develop between teachers and students that emphasises a shared (but still, by differences in experience and training, unequal) responsibility for production of knowledge, then referencing will continue to be a confusing and potentially antagonistic battleground for all concerned.

Casting and notes on each paragraph

One of the problems that confronts teachers of first-year university units each semester is the need to ensure that students learn, quickly, the methods and skills of correct referencing.3 [In some courses, students are very much left to fend for themselves, relying on, perhaps, the services of the university library, advice offered by individual staff members, or simply muddling through on the basis of critical feedback on their first assignments. 11 [The Department of Media and Information (DMI), along with some other areas of the university," takes a different approach.]2 [DMI, in its first-year unit MCI 101: Research and Presentation Project, directly addresses the need that students have to learn correct referencing techniques, devoting some weeks and an assignment to that task.c]3 [Students can also practise these techniques in the assignments required in other first-year units.]4

This first paragraph establishes that it is reasonable to claim that DMI takes a different approach. It does so, in the premises, by claiming what other departments do, and then claims that what DMI does differs from this. Here are three interesting features of the paragraph:

a The first sentence is not part of the argument directly. However, this sentence does contribute. When claim 2 says 'takes a different approach', the question that needs to be answered is 'a different approach to what?'. The first sentence provides the answer... 'a different approach to the problem... [etc].'

b The phrase 'along with some other areas of the university' is not properly

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