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The last paragraph is a summary of what comes before and I have not cast

Looking back over the last three paragraphs, I have tried to produce something of the key argument they contain as a list of claims and diagram. In doing so, I hope not only to assist you in understanding the text as a whole but also to show how casting is not 'the only way of doing things'. Sometimes we can try to understand things by reconstructing the underlying argument structure, rather than directly recovering it from the narrative flow. I have changed the words, and stripped the argument down to its essentials so as to make clear what the logic is. This is not casting. I am doing it here simply to show you another use for the methods of thinking about logic I have discussed in this book.

1. We need to make students think of themselves as writers and not as students.

2. Students write for an assessor.

3. Students have comradeship with other students.

4. Students write with the goal of getting a good mark.

5. Students write as a result of being told to write.

6. Being a writer means believing that the goal of writing is contributing to knowledge.

7. Being a writer means thinking of one's audience as those people with something to learn from the writer.

8. Being a writer means having a sense of comradeship with other authors.

9. Being a writer means writing with self-motivation to write.

10. Students do not write as if they are writers, but write as students.

11. Referencing only seems relevant if one is a writer.

12. Students know technically how to reference.

Capturing the essence of the text mainp -

13. The most likely explanation of students' failures to reference is that they do not think of themselves as writers.

14. We do not want students to fail to reference.

Overall narrative flow of the text

There are ten paragraphs in the text. Here is what each of them does, as part of a narrative flow that expresses the underlying logical structure:

1 Sets the scene by providing background information and grabbing the reader's attention by establishing that there is a problem that needs to be considered.

2 This paragraph provides crucial signalling information about the whole piece. It identifies that there is something interesting about the solution proposed by it to the problem (always useful to know when one is looking for new and different ideas), and signals that the paper has a two-part structure.

3 A further set of signals about the organisation of the paper. It identifies that there will be three reasons, and each will be examined in detail.

4,5,6 Each of these paragraphs covers one of the three reasons signalled in paragraph 3. This structure shows how paragraphing can help, indirectly, to sustain the argument ... reflecting the intellectual decisions about what and how many reasons in the words on the page.

7 Sums up these reasons in an accessible way. It is not a conclusion. It summarises. Paragraphs like this are useful to help readers grasp what has been communicated since reading something twice helps to embed it in their minds.

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