Mainp softvnncom

e. The two main political parties are the Liberal Party of Australia and the f. A broken leg requires immediate medical treatment.

Perhaps the most common way of overcoming this 'problem'—the risk that our claims may not be accepted—is to support them by an appeal to authority. This is a very special form of reasoning that, to establish the acceptability of a claim, does not give an argument but makes reference (in one or more ways) to an expert. In this reference, an appeal to authority indirectly points to arguments or explanations

There are many conventional forms of reasoning in which we come across claims supported by authority. Here are some examples (the words that provide the a. 'Gender and sexual definitions [have] become the focus of intense b. Australian history is marked by considerable conflict and tension over the competing interests of labour and capital (see Rickard 1992).

c. According to Dr Jane Long, who has studied this topic in detail, poor women in nineteenth-century England were, by and large, worse off d. In my twenty years' experience as a High Court judge, I have come e. I look back on my childhood and recall that I was always encouraged f. The experiments I have conducted show that many cleaning products

You should be reasonably familiar with the type of support offered in claims a and b. Here the claims are stated and a reference given to the book, chapter, or article from which they are drawn. In the first, the reference is direct: Gledhill's actual words are quoted (and the reference would be given in full in the bibliography). In the second, the reference is indirect: the claim given summarises a discussion in Rickard's book. References such as these acknowledge the source of ideas and evidence, but also provide support for the claims. In effect, they say 'This claim I now make is well founded because it has been previously established by someone else, and here is the reference to that person's work so you can go and check for yourself. The insistence in academic work on proper referencing is, therefore, not simply a tedious necessity but a significant part of the main purpose of writing: the clear expression of good

Claims c and d are slightly different. They are similar in that the acceptability of the claim in each case is founded on the authority of an expert, but

0 0

Post a comment