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Claims a and c are explicit value claims; claim b has an implied value judgment; claim d is (probably) simply descriptive. Where is the value judgment in claim b? It does, of course, depend on context, but most people in contemporary Australia recognise that 'fat is bad for you'. Hence, claiming that some product contains fat connects it with this value judgment; equally, though, there are some situations in which fat is good for you (or at least better than avoiding it altogether). On the other hand, is there some value judgment in claim d? In certain contexts, the idea that 'white is pure' (and hence 'good for you') could be implied by this claim, thus making it, to some extent, a value judgment. If you found this exercise hard, you have done well: judging and identifying value claims depends, by and large, on the

Some examples: 'Because the road is wet [p], you need to drive more carefully [cj'Because you need to drive more carefully [p], you should pay attention to what you are doing [c]'; 'I conclude that there was a rainstorm a few minutes ago [c] because Verity has just come home soaking wet [p]'; 'There was a rainstorm a few minutes ago [p] and so the road is wet [cj\ In preparation for chapter 3, think about the role of words such as 'because', 'I conclude', and so

Conclusions a and d are appeals to action, with the latter involving a change in thinking. Note the disguised claim in the rhetorical question. Conclusion b makes a prediction. Conclusion c is an explanation showing how the conclusion comes about. Conclusion e is a justification on the part of the government for its past a I was elated because, today, I found out that I had passed my exam. (Two b I felt ill and so I went home from work. (Still two claims in one sentence but c Thinking helps us to do better at work; and thinking improves our performance at university. So we better learn to do it! (Changing where the nouns

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