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example, I had 'unluckily' chosen a sample of 1000 Australians who were unusually pro-republic, then it is unlikely that my broad conclusions would be correct. So, good reasoning from specific cases requires some consideration of the degree to which the cases selected represent the general category as a whole.

This question of 'representativeness' is precisely why reasoning from specific cases needs to proceed on a sound base of'specifics'. If I were to argue, on the basis of one bad meal of Italian food, that ¿//Italian food was bad, I would be relying on far too small a sample for my argument to be effective. Equally, we should not trust surveys that rely on large numbers of responses from an unrepresentative group. For example, television stations have taken to conducting 'polls' in which people ring in to answer 'yes' or 'no' to a particular question (for example, 'Should the death penalty be reintroduced?'). The answer is then represented as a good generalisation of all Australians' attitudes when, in fact, it is only a generalisation of the views of those viewers of that particular television station who were able and willing to ring

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