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there is no 'source' to check up on. In claim c, the authority is that of someone who has studied a subject and is, presumably, an expert on such matters. In claim d, the authority comes not from study, but from relevant personal experience—that is, experience that does, in fact, help to establish the claim. Claim e provides another significant type of authority: the authority of personal experience in relation to one's own life (one is usually an expert on one's own life, though not always). Claim f is different again, and a significant form of authority in most scientific and social science research. As noted above, authors can present claims as being self-evidently true via the audience's trust that they are accurate researchers, investigators, and thinkers. In this case, we simply find an explicit statement that calls upon that trust. But, in each case, the inclusion of some reference to authority functions to support the truthfulness of the claim, and in that respect, there is more similarity than difference between the five examples.

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