Begin to use them by organizing the information on the spreadsheets in such a way that you can refer to them easily. Then as you begin writing you will keep an ongoing sheet of particular words or phrases about which you need more information. Perhaps you will make further spreadsheets, which will extend and complete your model for writing a successful scientific paper. Keep the spreadsheets. Use them. Modify them by adding new information and discarding data you find you no longer need. Anytime you have a question about the written presentation of a certain idea, your spreadsheets should help you. If your spreadsheets are not sufficient help, a careful scan of a relevant published article written by a native speaker of English should provide what you need. Even writers who do not keep spreadsheets usually have their own personal lists of
This spreadsheet may contain a list of appropriate varieties of the verbs you find along with notes about the situations in which they were used. Finding correct, varied, and interesting verbs to use in sentences about research procedures is one the most difficult writing problems a scientist encounters. The accuracy of the meaning of your sentences and paragraphs
This spreadsheet may contain notes on the lengths of sentences in the articles and on the variety of sentence structures. For example, check how frequently sentences start with the subject. Make notes about what words or structures sentences start with when they do not start with the subject. Write down particular structures that catch your eye as effective. Notice how infrequently prepositional phrases are used and when they are used. You may want to eliminate a number of irrelevant ones you find in your manuscript.
Subject Training course in how to use spreadsheets I have found some interesting information about a computer training course taking place in the city centre. I think it would be useful for someone from our department to attend as we are all a bit uncertain about how to use Excel, although we know the basics of course. I have a copy of their leaflet, and the details are as follows. The name of the course is 'Spreadsheets for Financial Planning', and the course dates are from 4 June to 8 June. The course runs every evening during that week, from 18.00 to 19.30. The cost is 750. I am free at that time and I would really like to go -1 can help other people in the future. I know it's a bit expensive, but do you think the company can pay for me I can't afford to pay for it out of my own money. Thank you very much.
Content inventory content analysis by listing all the content you now have on the site. You can use a spreadsheet to keep track of the topic, the current URL, who is responsible for that content, and so on. You might also have a column to indicate whether that page should be deleted, revised, or kept as is. You can also add notes about content that needs to be written.
Questionnaire data is most usable if it is stored in a computer file. This is a prerequisite to any professional analysis of the data but even if you are engaged in a small-scale investigation that is not intended to result in a research publication you can save a lot of time if you enter the data into a spreadsheet, for example. Modern computer programs tend to be so user-friendly that one can often learn to use them with less effort than what would be required, for example, to calculate the mean (i.e., the average) scores of the questionnaire responses manually, using a pocket calculator.
An important form of unnecessary language in a research article is the presence of additional information, which is interesting and fun to write but which is irrelevant to the results being reported. Through a careful use of your spreadsheets, you may have already eliminated this type of lengthy explanation, but, if not, you need to scan again to be certain your manuscript has avoided using obvious to the reader. Watch for extraneous information in prepositional phrases such as 'by the researcher', 'during the research', 'on the table', 'in this group'. Remove all these irrelevant phrases as you edit. Note how few of these you were able to collect on the spreadsheets from your photocopied articles.
Of a problem for native as well as non-native English writers, but native speakers have 'an ear' for whether or not it can be left out and whether or not it should be left in. Probably you will need years to develop 'an ear', and the good advice of 'When in doubt, leave it out' may get you into trouble. Your most helpful source will be found in the spreadsheet information you gather from recent journal articles.
Note that a thesaurus is a dangerous source for finding an alternate word to use. English is both too subtle and too complex for a thesaurus to be a safe tool. Your only reliable information is in your spreadsheets and the articles you photocopied. If neither of these contain the vocabulary you seek, find other recent articles written by native English speakers, photocopy them, and add data from them to your spreadsheets.
We can get email email someone and get email letters. We can work in an office office with someone use office supplies. No other language has this - what some consider scandalous - flexibility. When you see an example of these trends in a science article, look it up in a dictionary published 2000 CE or later. If it is there, add it to your spreadsheets.
Spreadsheets or tables containing too much information have the potential to become the worst type of visual aid possible. Audiences simply cannot assimilate all of those columns and rows. Furthermore, overloaded tables can be difficult to read on a screen. Never ever plan to include such material with the comment, I know you can't read this, but. . .
Contemporary writing in science has become more and more direct and, as it has, the use of passive voice has been fast disappearing. Check your spreadsheets, or go back to the photocopied articles, to discover if you find verbs in passive voice. Change any you find to active voice, for examples see Table 2. The journals esteem active voice and direct statements.
Next, check all the places in your first draft where you used your private code. Replace all non-English words and refine the problems. Begin to turn to your spreadsheets for help. Work with them in whatever order you prefer, checking carefully through your manuscript with each spreadsheet and rewriting as you go. Even a highly skilled writer, who is a native speaker of English, does not write a successful paper in a single draft. All successful articles undergo a number of drafts before they are ready to be sent to journals. In each draft you will continue looking back at the information you have on your spreadsheets, checking, rechecking, and rewriting. Possibly your spreadsheets will not contain enough information and you will need to turn back to the articles you photocopied for further help.
Your voice is ready. Now what words will you choose Your spreadsheets and the articles you photocopied will supply you with good choices of verbs, adjectives, and phrases, but they will not supply you with soft Listen for soft transitions when you hear English speakers at conferences. Choose the ones you like and make a list to add to your spreadsheets.
Type of science can be extremely undependable in their choice of improvements. Their ability to edit the kind of English used in newspaper reporting, essays, novels, and personal letters may be excellent, but they are not knowledgeable about the way language is used to report research in science journals. Other services devoted only to science are often of little better help because even they often lack specific knowledge of your particular field. So beware, and, if you choose to use a professional editing service, wherever there is a disagreement between what the service suggests and what your spreadsheets tell you, trust the spreadsheets. See Chapter 2 for information about spreadsheets.
We have written an entire book on budgets. It is the Grant Seeker's Budget Toolkit.2 The book describes how to cost out a project step-by-step. There is a detailed analysis of every part of a budget with examples. In addition, there is a CD included with spreadsheets to use for every part of the budget process, and worksheets for project budget development. This book cannot go into detailed specifics of the budget, as the Budget Toolkit does. If you still have questions, we suggest that you either purchase a Grant Seeker's Budget Toolkit or find one at your local library.
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