Addition

When you want simply to add a point or idea to reinforce or support what you have already said, you can use these conjunctions, adverbs and phrases * also, again, furthermore, moreover, too, in addition * equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly_ In addition, the investigations of the present study provided guidelines._ Again, if there are no net forces on internal boundaries, it is possible to make constant terms in We. Similarly, from the unit displacement in direction 2 and 3, we can...

A summary

By its very nature this must be written last. It should only be between 150 and 300 words (2 paragraphs) long, and include points in the cover letter. An introduction. Use the introduction to establish the need for the research and the credibility of the researchers to do it. Include Background on the need to be addressed by the research Background on the researchers and their organisation (including degrees, titles and achievements) A needs assessment. This section should answer these...

Abstracts

Abstracts are called 'summaries' by some journals, though strictly speaking the terms are not exactly the same. A summary restates the main findings and conclusions of a paper and is written for people who have already read the whole thing. (See section 2.12 Summary Writing) An abstract is a shortened version of the paper written for people who may never read the full version. Since abstracts are often reprinted in abstracting journals separated from the original paper, they need to be...

An Overview of Rotating Stall and Surge Control for Axial Flow Compressors

Modeling and control for axial flow compression systems have received great attention in recent years. The objectives are to suppress rotating stall and surge, to extend the stable operating range of the compressor system, and to enlarge domains of attraction of stable equilibria using feedback control methods. The success of this research field will significantly improve compressor performance and thus future aeroengine performance. This paper surveys the research literature and summarizes the...

Analysis of the introduction

The introduction presents the topic Recycled Paper by stating very general information that most readers are already aware of. The topic is narrowed down to a particular problem with recycled paper its lack of structural strength. This is then further narrowed down to a thesis statement, saying that hemp is the solution to the problem. Note that the writer suggests that hemp may perhaps have something more to offer the paper industry than just its strength Note how the writer goes beyond the...

Are there any generalisations I should avoid

the 'sweeping' over-generalisation, in which you say something is true in every situation. Your statement may have some element of truth but cannot be treated as valid because there are so many exceptions and it is unsupported by evidence. Boys are better at science at school than girls. expressing your own viewpoint as if it were a generally accepted truth X is obviously the most highly regarded physicist of his generation. making non-statements that are either so obvious that they need not...

Are there any guidelines for summary writing

Read the whole of the original text quickly to gain an impression of its content and its relevance to your work 2. Highlight the main points as you read 3. Make notes of your own on these points 4. Put away the original and rewrite your notes in your own words in complete sentences 5. Begin your summary with a statement of the main idea at the start. Don't forget to include referencing of your source. 6. Using your notes, write out your subsidiary or supporting points in coherent,...

Article conclusions

A good introduction encourages the reader to read on it sets the tone for the article but it may fade in the reader's memory. What is remembered, on the other hand, is the conclusion. The conclusion should be an anchor in the reader's mind, a place where the whole of the essay is attached a weak ending soon loses its hold and the essay is forgotten. The last paragraph is a conclusion, an ending, not just a stopping. It should not simply be a repetition of the introduction, but should take...

CD is a Cellular Receptor for Human Herpesvirus

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the etiologic agent of exanthum subitum, causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, and has been implicated in multiple sclerosis and in the progression of AIDS. Here, we show that the two major HHV-6 subgroups (A and B) use human CD46 as a cellular receptor. Downregulation of surface CD46 was documented during the course of HHV-6 infection. Both acute infection and cell fusion mediated by HHV-6 were specifically inhibited by a monoclonal...

Chapter STYLE

When publishing in English you need to take account of the general rules which have become accepted as the norm in academic communication. In writing technical and scientific papers in particular, you should aim to achieve objectivity, clarity and precision. In addition, there are conventions governing the use of formal patterns, though the need to establish rapport with your audience and to make your writing reader-friendly has an influence on determining your selection of formal or informal...

Components of a proposal

Although there is variation according to the organisation you are applying to, a proposal will probably consist of these elements. A cover letter. This is one page long, separate from the main proposal. It introduces the reason for your research - the needs and the problems that the research is to meet. the cost of the research the length of the research the benefits of the research (including to the prospective donors) A title page. The title page is one sheet of paper. It contains the...

Contents

If research done, findings found, conclusions drawn are not presented to the world then it is arguable whether they are of any real use at all. The reason for the research paper is to present the findings to the world, to share the information learned for others to do with it what they will. Why the research was originally conducted is of interest, but the researcher's intentions, goals and conclusions are not the end. For example, a zoologist's published observations...

Contracted verb forms

These are the representations in writing of verb forms normal in speech a letter in the verb has been omitted, as indicated by an apostrophe. These contractions should be avoided in academic writing. This is a problem of linear algebra which won't be discussed here. This is a problem of linear algebra which will not be discussed here. Ii is true that nowadays contracted verb forms can be found in scientific publications as they are increasingly regarded as a way of producing informality, thus...

Contrasting

Contrasting is a specific kind of comparison. Whereas in comparing you normally look for at least one feature that the two or more objects have in common, in contrasting you aim to identify the differences between them. Here are some useful sentence structures by its (a certain characteristic) Some common conjunctions and sentence linkers for expressing contrast Some common conjunctions and sentence linkers for expressing contrast The RAM differs from the ROM in that it can be written into as...

Contrasting ideas

Useful phrases include the following. See also Section 4.3 Comparing and Contrasting * although, despite, in spite of * but, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, yet * on the contrary, by comparison, by contrast, in contrast to, on the one hand on the other hand * instead, alternatively, conversely, whereas_ Motivated by the advantages and the adaptive potential of the dynamic modelling procedures on the one hand and by the problem of .on the other hand, the present paper proposes. Though this...

Different kinds of plans

Only the main points are jotted down in an order that best serves the argument and information sharing of the paper. A complete plan. Below the main points of the simple plan, you can list more specific points. Generally you do not have to be over-specific, but this is a way of making sure that the detailed points you want to make are not forgotten. A question plan. In these you write down the questions that you are trying to answer at each stage of your work. This form helps...

Different ways of ordering your material

Points are made one after another in the order of occurrence. Used when proving an assertion made in the introduction. Each step builds on the one before, from the obvious to the complicated, building the reader's understanding gradually. It builds naturally to a climax in the conclusion. Used when urging the reader to apply a solution to a problem. It states the problem, and then begins to direct towards a specific solution. Used when contrasting and comparing, from similarity to...

Discussion

In this section you write about your interpretation of your findings and your evaluation of the research. In particular, you give your opinion as to whether the work supported and proved your hypothesis, or whether it did not. * the success or failure of various research methods * how the studies might have been done differently to investigate the problem better Questions to be answered in the Discussion section Did the research support the hypothesis If not, why...

Dissimilarity

Dissimilarity basically means that one phenomenon is either more or less than another in one or several respects. The following structures can be used (substantially) (somewhat) (rather) (slightly) adjective + -er more + adjective less + adjective So even though it's non-porous, much thicker and far more reliable than gold plating, we can almost always offer our glad connectors for less than you would pay for an ordinary connector. In general, the dependence of the open-loop gain on temperature...

Drafting and redrafting

Remember that you should write, rewrite and rewrite again. A first writing is not good enough. It must be improved. A second writing will expose the most obvious errors. A third polishes. Better words, clearer thoughts and more apt illustrations will present themselves to the writer. If possible, between drafts leave the piece. It is amazing what time will expose in even the

Elements in a title

In technical and scientific writing the title is a precise description of the contents. It should include specific words to indicate the following the topic, that is, the main, general subject you are writing about the focus, that is, a detailed narrowing down of the topic into the particular, limited area of your research optionally, for a scientific article, the purpose of your writing. This means including a word such as the following, which tells the reader what kind of argumentation to...

Expressing your ideas concisely

Being concise in your writing means expressing your ideas in as few words as possible. This involves not repeating what you say, cutting out irrelevant details and avoiding redundancy, that is, the use of unnecessary words. If your sentences are too 'wordy', they are difficult for the reader to understand. We continued our activities in the development of new protocols for group communication. We have developed new protocols for group communications. The different materials that contribute to...

Format of references

The basic guidelines below apply to how you lay out the details about a source in a footnote, an endnote or a bibliography. For how you actually cite a source in your text see Section 4.8 Quoting. The examples given follow APA style, as governed by The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Check whether this style actually applies to your own discipline. Reference to a book. Information to include * names of the author(s) surname first, with initials for given names *...

Generalising

This sometimes involves summation, or the summing up of what has gone before. Phrases include the following. See also Section 4.6 Generalising. * in general, on the whole, by and large, in total, as a rule, for the most part, broadly speaking, speaking generally, usually * altogether, overall, thus, obviously On the whole, sharp-cut-off type filters turned out to be more problematic from a numerical point of view and inferior to top-hat-filters._ In total, in nearly every respect, the best a...

How are the punctuation marks used Comma This is used

* between two independent clauses with different subjects if they are part of a series or are joined by and, but, so and or. The reactor was out of control, the content overheated, and the safety valve failed._ The diagnostic work is normally done by the computer, but the technician must be able to understand the various computer operating systems and to use the system's software._ * if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause in a sentence When the liquid boils, a residue is formed....

How can I emphasise points visually

make use of tables, graphs, charts and other visual forms of illustration in support of your written text. It is easier for many readers to extract information from a diagram than to follow the detail of your written argument. However, you should realise that the more tables you include, the less will be the impact of each. visually, text that has white space around it stands out more than something that is surrounded by a lot of other text. Therefore * make use of headings, separated from the...

How do I do intext referencing

The same guidelines described in Section 4.8 on Quoting apply to paraphrasing. Language to use to introduce paraphrases You can use the same 'reporting' verbs for paraphrasing as are given in Section 4.8 on Quoting. In particular, verbs that reflect the original writer's purpose or attitude towards his her subject are useful when paraphrasing, e.g. Xdefends his position by arguing that Xattacks his opponents with his statement that Xaffirms his opinion that _ Note that the 'reporting' verb can...

How do I express numbers in my writing

When is it necessary to write numbers as numerals (1, 2, 3, 4 ) or as words (one, two, three, four, ) The answer is always to present your work as clearly as possible. Is your text unreadable because of an overloading of numerals or, in contrast, are some important figures unnecessarily hidden within the text The following are some general rules which should be followed, including correct examples Numerals should not be used at the beginning of a sentence. > One of the specimens underwent...

How is the past tense used

You use this when referring to specific tasks carried out, such as taking measurements, conducting experiments, describing methods actually used, or presenting your results and conclusions from the particular piece of work. * The past simple passive is mainly used when we report a particular procedure related to only one particular occasion in the past. (See Section 5.4 on Passive Voice) In Fig.4 the uniaxial curve was calculated using Eq. 51 , the deviatoric stress-strain curve was calculated...

How is the present tense used

It is used to state facts that are generally valid from the point of view of the writer. Therefore, use it in the following situations * when writing about your topic or background Lasers are devices which amplify light and produce beams of light which are very intense, directional, Little is known about HPS systems , which are the subject of the following chapter._ Here we investigate the properties of the above mentioned metals._ The perturbation method we develop here applies to any crack...

How should I punctuate quotations

if your quotation is short, maybe only two or three words, try to run it within the grammatical flow of your sentence. This means single quotation marks are sufficient (together with appropriate referencing) The conclusion of their analysis is that commercial nodule mining is unlikely for 'the foreseeable future' (35)._ if your quotation is a little longer and is preceded by an introductory phrase, then you can use a comma or a colon before the quotation itself. In one of his many publications...

How to position also

Generally, also is placed after the auxiliary verb (if there is one), but before the stem verb Finite element schemes also exist for determining the weight functions numerically._ Systematic errors may be caused by the environment, the instrument, or the experimenter. Systematic errors may also be identified and eliminated during the laboratory._ If also functions as a link word for the sentence as a whole, then it is best to place it AFTER the subject of the sentence rather than as the first...

In what different ways can things be compared Similarity

When you want to emphasise the similarity between two things, you can use the following sentence patterns (about almost roughly essentially the same as The characteristic feature of the totality of natural numbers, , is logically equivalent to the principle of mathematical induction. A point set in S in the plane is called bounded if For a point set in space the definition is similar, we By way of analogy, the ALU may be thought of as a super adding-machine. We define an accumulation point of S...

Introductions to research papers

Introductions to scientific research papers differ from those in articles in certain respects In papers, the introduction is direct and to the point. It is therefore somewhat shorter than in an article, maybe only one paragraph long. In some papers, the introduction is actually a named section of the paper. It follows the title, and in this case it is itself entitled 'Introduction'. It may have additional paragraphs containing a review of the literature and any pertinent background information....

Is there any difference in style between a descriptive and an informative abstract

Both types of abstract must communicate ideas effectively, preferably with direct, active statements in short, simple sentences. There can be a difference in the use of verb tenses * use the present tense when you make general statements of fact, or say what your paper does (as in a descriptive abstract) * use the past tense when you explain what you actually did or found out in your piece of research (as in an informative abstract) The descriptive abstract will make more use of generalised...

Language to use to introduce quotations

There are a wide variety of 'reporting' verbs and verb phrases that you can use to introduce a quotation. Here are some of the more common ones Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs * If you use MLA Style, you should put the verbs in the present tense both for personal comments and for quotations. * If you use APA style (more common for the natural sciences), you should put the verbs in the past tense for citations, and only use the...

Language use

* It uses present tenses for general statements and explanation of what the paper does. * It uses past tenses to describe the procedure and results of the research. * It contains a greater density of technical, topic-related terms than the descriptive abstract, together with specific verbs to describe precisely what happened in the research (inhibited, blocked, etc.). * Note the use of the passive when describing the research. * It also uses extended sentences in order to condense information....

Length of a paragraph

There is no ideal length that can apply to all paragraphs since length depends largely on the content. However, as a general guide, it is helpful to the reader to keep most of your paragraphs to between seven and fourteen lines in length (say, between three and six or seven sentences). Occasionally paragraphs can be shorter than this (where a point needs to be made briefly or with special emphasis) or longer (where more detailed elaboration of a point is needed). For the reader, too many short...

Notes

* when there are more than three authors, generally only one is listed, followed by a comma and et al. * in your bibliography, if there are two or more works by the same author, they should be listed chronologically. If there are two by the same author in the same year, the date is followed by a, b, etc.

Noun suffixes

Many nouns are formed by adding a suffix to a verb. The most common suffixes of this type are as follows * Note sometimes there is a spelling change. The most common is the omission of the final e before the suffix - ion or - ation translate translation. Noun + suffix. -ist is a common suffix added to existing nouns to describe people and their jobs ecologist, journalist, artist. Adjective + suffix. Nouns are also formed by adding a suffix to an adjective. Two suffixes often...

Other prefixes with specific meanings

Many other prefixes are used in English. Below is a list of prefixes which are useful in helping you to understand unfamiliar words. Some of these words are used with a hyphen. Check in a dictionary if you are not sure. atypical, anhydrous (not containing water) infra-red (below the wavelenght of red) outwear (wear or last longer than) outlying (beyond the main body) overproduction overlie (to lie on top of) paratyphoid (disease similar to typhus but of different origin) quadrivalent (having a...

Planning your Writing

A primary tool for a writer is making a plan or outline before starting to write. Planning enables you to organise your thoughts efficiently decide on the most effective way to present your information. keep to a logical sequence of points and not wander off on a tangent remember all the information that must be included cut out unnecessary or irrelevant bits Of course a plan can be changed. Writing is an exploratory process and as the piece is being written and assembled the outline can be...

Points to be covered in the introduction to a research paper

The introduction to a research paper should involve the reader by answering these questions What was your reason for doing the research What in general was the research attempting to find out What was your hypothesis or thesis What specifically was the research attempting to prove What background information is pertinent to an understanding of the paper What literature is pertinent What other studies have explored the subject (Note that all literature must be fully documented. See Section 2.10...

Points to check in your own writing

Here are some simple tasks for you to see if you are constructing paragraphs properly. Take one or two pages of your academic writing. Do a 'visual' check on the length of paragraphs - does the text look too heavy or too 'bitty' or about right Check whether the average length of the paragraphs is between 7 and 14 lines (3 to 7 sentences) Count the number of words in randomly selected sentences. Does the average number of words come to between 15 and 25 If so, this is about right. Do the 'skim'...

Points to check in your own writing In the introduction to an article

Topic - have you made it clear to the reader what the topic of the paper is Have you captured the reader's interest by using a 'hook' Thesis statement - does the reader clearly know the thrust of your argument Is it stated clearly in one precise sentence Does the introduction effectively introduce the rest of the article If not, rewrite it. In the introduction to a research paper Have you stated the topic and the purpose of the research Have you expressed your hypothesis or thesis statement...

Points to check in your writing

Have I given the right degree of emphasis to my important points If not, how can I highlight them better Can I make more, or better, use of visual techniques to make important points stand out e.g. * positioning ideas in paragraphs Do I need to change the grammatical structure of sentences to give more emphasis to important points

Points to check when writing or redrafting an article

Is your thesis statement clear and understandable Are the tone and vocabulary suitable for the intended audience Consider only the first and last paragraphs. Can the reader understand the gist of the whole by reading just these two paragraphs Does the final paragraph merely restate the first paragraph If it does, rewrite it. Have you used the right arguments, language and style to persuade the reader to agree with you Have you expressed yourself exactly and precisely This is of ultimate...

Points to include in an introduction

In the introduction to an article you present your topic in general, then narrow the focus on the topic and make a clear thesis statement. Your thesis statement expresses the central idea of your paper. Everything else you write flows from this and depends on it. The thesis statement needs to be clear, and concisely and precisely stated. Topic, Topic Sentence, Thesis, Hypothesis These terms are all often associated with introductory paragraphs. They are different and not all are found in every...

Prefixes with the meaning not

The most common prefixes used to give a negative meaning to adjectives, and some verbs and nouns, are as follows used before words beginning with m or p used before some words beginning with l used before some words beginning with r used before a limited number of words used before some adjectives and a few verbs Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its negative. So when you learn a new adjective, note down whether it has an opposite formed...

Proportionality and disproportionality

When two objects, X and Y, are considered in relation to each other, the variability of certain of their features or characteristics can be compared. The comparison may produce either a proportional or a disproportional result. You can use the following sentence structures The higher the velocity of steam, the greater the turbine speed. Data input rise and fall times reduce as driver output impedance increases. The critical twist value, after which strength decreases, is lower for the former,...

Punctuation

Proper punctuation makes a text clear to understand. Wrongly placed punctuation marks may make a sentence ambiguous or even change the meaning. Each punctuation mark serves a purpose and conveys a signal to the reader. Apart from capital letters and full stops, the most common punctuation marks in technical and scientific writing are

Purpose of a proposal

A proposal must demonstrate that your research project is worth the time, effort and money to accomplish it. It must make the need for money and time easily understandable and it must propose an appropriate recipient for the funding. A proposal promises that the project will be completed. A proposal states the researcher's commitment to doing the work. A proposal presents a detailed plan to accomplish the research.

Putting your ideas in order

Though information and ideas may come to you randomly, it is your job as a writer to clarify and structure your data and present it in a sane, sensible and logical fashion. Here are some points to think about when planning, selecting and sequencing your material Have a goal, a main idea and intent. Every idea, sentence and paragraph must lead towards that goal effectively. Stick to the matter at hand omit anything that does not lead towards the goal, no matter how...

Quoting

When writing a research paper or report, it is normal to include references and quotations from the work of others. This is for one or more of the following reasons to cite evidence or opinions from an authority on the subject in support of your argument to put forward someone else's viewpoint that you intend to argue against to show the range of source materials you have used to support or challenge your own ideas to acknowledge that your arguments derive from the work of others and thereby...

Reference to an article from a journal Information to include

* year of publication, in parentheses * title of the article, without quotation marks or underlining, with only the first word capitalised * name of the journal underlined, with all major words having a capital letter * inclusive page numbers, not preceded by p or pp. Linear and non-linear strategies in computer-based writing Reference to an unpublished work. The information would appear as follows Reference to an unpublished work. The information would appear as follows Survey of postgraduate...

Reformulation

This is where you want to express an idea in a different way, either to reinforce its importance or to make something clearer. Sometimes you want to suggest an alternative to what you said before. Phrases you can use include * to put it simply, better, rather, that is to say * in other words, alternatively, again In other words, regularly antisymmetric profiles with more than two layers behave essentially as a profile of equal thickness composed of an infinite number of layers, or...

Sample paragraph

The following paragraph can be analysed to show its structure and the functions of the 8 sentences. (The numbers are inserted only to identify the sentences) (1) The Ultra Long Duration Balloon is a super-pressure, or closed balloon, which is not vented to the atmosphere like conventional balloons. (2) Usually fabricated from stronger materials such as polyester, super-pressure balloons are inflated like their zero-pressure counterparts and then sealed. (3) Once a super-pressure balloon reaches...

Sample summary

The main points in the text below can be written in a shorter, summary form for inclusion in your own writing. Points about the summary it is about one third of the length of the original (88 words, compared to 273 in the original the number of sentences has been reduced from 16 to 4 the information has been compressed into these 4 sentences by * cutting out less important information, e.g. examples * reducing a whole clause or sentence to a phrase * by using more subordinate clauses * linking...

Some other punctuation conventions in technicalscientific writing three dots are used to indicate an unfinished

In a similar manner, multiplication factors of 1, 2, 3, can be achieved. the oblique stroke or slash is used to abbreviate your text, especially when you want to specify alternatives or sub-sectioning highly efficient input output features quotation marks, italics, bold face and capitals can be used to indicate emphasis Now that we have the big picture of industrial automation, we can appreciate two of the main components of the factory automation scheme.

Structure of a paragraph

There is no single pattern that will apply to all paragraphs. Following the topic sentence, the other sentences can have a variety of functions, e.g. clarifying or re-stating the main idea qualifying the main point in some way commenting on the main idea. There is also some linking, either stated or implied, with the previous and the following paragraphs.

Superiority and inferiority

This means saying how something is better or worse than something else, with regard to particular features. Phrases you can use include in being in that it is inasmuch as it is more + noun greater + noun less + noun The reciprocating pump is superior to the rotary pump in being more efficient. The yarn strength of air-vortex spun yarns is somewhat inferior to that of rotor-spun yarns, a 5 difference in strength being reported.

The position of adverbial phrases

The most flexible elements in a sentence are the various kinds of adverbs and adverbial phrases. They are the most movable as they can occur at the start, in the middle or at the end. With the star-shaped flyer plate, cracks are observed to have formed at the middle of each free edge Various numerical methods were recently developed for engineering problems._ The first element in the sentence attracts most attention. It is usually the subject but if another sentence element is to be emphasised,...

The structure of a scientific article

Articles and essays need to be a seamless whole paragraph flowing into paragraph, ideas presented smoothly in logical order. Structurally they can be broken down into these three parts _ Each of these is covered in a section in Chapter 2 on Composition. Articles and essays need to be well thought out and ordered. How the writer introduces the piece, builds on the introduction through the body, and concludes will largely determine how the information is accepted. Step by step, the writer must...

The Use of Hemp in Reprocessed Paper Manufacture

As recycling paper becomes more common throughout the world, new uses for the reprocessed product are increasing. Paper bags and cardboard boxes, the pages of the latest best-selling paperback, disposable cups, paper towels and toilet paper all use recycled paper with varied effectiveness. The paper bags tear easier than those made of virgin paper. The paperbacks begin to crumble in a few short years, the paper towels break down quickly into mush and the paper cups leak before the coffee has...

The verb

The verb should be positioned as close to the subject as possible. The mistake of placing the verb at the end of the sentence after an over-long subject has been mentioned above. No damage was observed in the specimen due to the uniaxial compressive stress. The regular pattern S-V is inverted when you want to signal the existence or presence of something new by using there is are was were, etc. There has been relatively little examination of the effect of mode on subcritical crack growth....

Titles

The purpose of a piece of scientific writing is to present information clearly and concisely so that it can be easily understood. Clarity therefore begins with the title. In scientific and technical writing, a poetic or stylized title does not help the reader at all. For does not tell the reader that the paper is about birds, woodpeckers to be exact. However, this title The mating rituals of Geocolaptes olivaceus, South Africa's Ground Woodpecker tells the reader very clearly what the subject...

Use of illustrations

In an essay or article there are generally fewer charts, graphs, tables and other graphics. They are used only if they are the best way of conveying the information. In an essay or article, artwork and photographs are more commonly used than in a research paper. In an essay or article most illustration is verbal. While they generally have no place in a research paper, in an essay or article stories and anecdotes may be used to hook the reader, maintain interest, and illustrate by example an...

Using phrasal verbs

Phrasal verbs consist of a verb plus a preposition, or a short adverb acting like a preposition, that combine to create a meaning different from the usual meanings of the individual words. Most of the words that make up phrasal verbs are short and frequently used. They function like normal verbs, but because they are idiomatic, they can create special vocabulary problems for non-native writers. Phrasal verbs are more suitable or appropriate for use in informal English, though some are quite...

Using the passive voice in impersonal writing

Scientific writing is usually done in an impersonal style. Information and facts are more important than personal opinions or attitudes. This style is also used to put a certain distance between the writer and the arguments proposed and thus makes them more objective. We can distinguish limits to other technical systems by Limits to other technical systems can be distinguished by. In the present article I want to The present article is intended to contribute. and as a result we selected the...

What are the basic ways of avoiding plagiarism

provide in-text documentation for each idea you have 'borrowed' from someone else (see Section 4.8 Quoting) put quotation marks round each item directly quoted (see Section 4.8 Quoting) make sure that your paraphrased material is written in your own style and language, and not simply copied from another person, or their sentences just rearranged (see Section 4.7 Paraphrasing) provide detailed information in your footnotes (or endnotes) and bibliography about all the sources you have cited (see...

What is the difference between summarising and paraphrasing

There are clear similarities between the two since both involve the re-writing of an author's ideas in your own words. (See Section 4.7 Paraphrasing) However, the main differences are a summary is likely to be shorter. Whereas paraphrasing may involve keeping more or less to the same length as the original, a summary could be the reduction of a long paragraph to a sentence, an article to a paragraph or a book to a page. a summary will keep to the structure and content of the original more...

What kinds of quotation are there

Quotations in your text can either be direct that is, you use the actual words of the original writer, or indirect that is, you paraphrase what the original source says by putting the ideas in your own words. In general, it is preferable to use the indirect, or paraphrasing, method since this incorporates the other author's ideas better into the flow of your own text. However, there are occasions when the author expresses an idea in a particularly succinct or memorable way that it is impossible...

What language can be used in classifications

The following prepositional phrases are very useful when talking about the feature used for classification (item 2 above) The following sentence patterns can be used to explain the way in which something can be classified Commercially, steel castings are classified as follows (a) low-carbon steels (carbon content below 0.20) (b) medium-carbon steels (carbon content between 0.20 and 0.50 )

What language can I use for real definitions

Real definitions include these functions Defining an object Geometry may be said to be a study of the properties of geometric figures. By a set of real numbers we mean an aggregate or class of numbers. Defining an object by assigning it to a category and specifying it Defining an object by assigning it to a category and specifying it participle clause + to infinitive for + gerund A pyrometer is an instrument for measuring high temperatures. Milling is a machining process in which a rotary...

What should an informative abstract contain

The informative abstract will contain a selection of these elements, depending on how you perceive the reader's needs an expansion or explanation of the title the purpose of the research how the research was conducted what the main findings were what recommendations can be made, e.g. for further research what the limitations of the research were Normally you would NOT include in your abstract any information that is not in the paper itself citations from other people's work

What sources must be documented

Every reference to another's work, word or ideas must be cited. Every paraphrase must acknowledge the original source. Every citation from a book, magazine, journal, the Internet, or speech must be noted. Every borrowing must be documented. Every quotation (whole or partial) must be given due credit. Not all plagiarism is intentional, but that in no way changes the seriousness of the offence -and the consequences suffered in reputation and integrity for the writer, the writer's research, and...

What you may include in your conclusion

* a summary of your main points, but written in a different way, so that the reader can get a different perspective on them * your evaluation of the topic - this may be a restatement of your introduction, or modified in light of the evidence * an amplification or extension of your thesis statement, logically following on from your main points in the body * your proposed solution to the problem you have discussed * a reconciliation between two opposing points of view * suggestions for further...

Which are the most common passive tenses used in technical and scientific writing

We normally use the present passive tense when describing a process or procedure or when making general statements of fact. Paper is made from wood. The trees are cut down. Past passive. When we report a particular procedure and are concerned with only one particular occasion in the past then we use the past passive tense. The capillary was filled with mercury and all air excluded. Air was admitted to the chamber and heated. Present perfect passive. This tense is often used in...

Word Order

English is generally considered to be a language with a relatively fixed word order. In practice, this means that the positions of the subject S, the main verb V, and the object O are fixed in relation to each other. In normal statements, which form the bulk of technical and scientific writing, these items occur regularly in the order S-V-O. Many flexible objects and structures The problem in technical and scientific writing is that parts of a sentence, particularly the subject, can become too...

How can I choose the correct article

Here is a flow chart which may aid you in correctly choosing the proper article. The following example will help you to use the flow chart (the analysed nouns are in italics) One form of listening to (music) (1) is by using CDs. The CD is (digital system) (2). The player's laser reads a series of (on off pulses) (3), without physically touching the disc's surface. Not every pulse must be read accurately - as long as the number of reading errors remains below a certain limit, (reconstruction) of...

What language can I use for nominal definitions

Here are some of the sentence patterns you can use Here are some of the sentence patterns you can use A curve is called smooth if two conditions are satisfied (1) (2) A function f(s) defined by f(s) f is called the Laplace transform of the function f(t). The term computer normally refers to a general-purpose, high-speed, programmable machine that is designed to handle a wide range of computer problems.

When is summary writing useful

Apart from the need to summarise other writers' ideas at particular points when writing a research paper, the skill is valuable in these situations when reviewing an article or book when annotating a bibliography entry In addition, of course, it is useful to develop the skill by keeping summary 'note cards' on other works that you read. In particular, this will help you to avoid plagiarism, since by writing from notes you will be presenting information in your own words.

How can I use language to emphasise points

In spoken English, you can emphasise parts of a sentence simply by using stress on important words. In writing, of course, we cannot do this. Instead, we can emphasise particular words or phrases by putting everything into a kind of relative clause except the words we want to emphasise. These structures are called cleft sentences. R ntgen discovered X-Rays in 1895. (no emphasis) It was R ntgen who discovered X-Rays in 1895. (emphasis on the person) It was in 1895 that R ntgen discovered X-Rays....

Coherence in your writing

Each sentence should follow on logically from the previous one and lead into the next one, as does each paragraph, idea, concept, argument and example, on to the conclusion. For each section, decide what the function of your writing is at that particular stage. Refer to the sections in Chapter 4 Language Functions for suggested words and phrases to help you in your writing. You should not include anything that does not directly contribute to your goal. Fascinating...

Semicolon

the semi-colon is weaker than a full stop, but stronger than a comma. You can use it to join two independent but closely related sentences This section will consider the communication electronics technician another section will be devoted to the computer electronics technician. you can also use the semi-colon in complicated lists, for example, to show sub-grouping Six excellent career fields within mechanical engineering technology are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning HVAC mechanical...

Sequencing referring backwards or forwards

Time relationships may be signalled by various phrases and words, such as adjectives, adverbs and verbs or noun phrases. These can also be used to show the logical relationship between ideas or to connect what you are saying with something you said previously. Words and phrases include _ so far, earlier, previous ly , before that, until now, already, formerly at present, presently, meanwhile, at this point first of all, to begin with, to start with finally, eventually, afterwards, later, above...

Describing Tables and Graphs

Probably the most important thing to keep in mind when describing graphs and tables is how to convey the information properly and accurately. Surprisingly, relatively few key words or grammar elements are needed when describing trends or movements. The following vocabulary items can be used to stay at the same level to remain constant

Objectivity

Objectivity is generally governed by the research topic although obviously it is individuals who actually have to select, arrange and present their findings. Thus it is your task, as the writer, to deal with your topic in a fair, objective and responsible manner, keeping your personal feelings out of your writing. From a language point of view, objectivity and a neutral approach impersonal style may be achieved by using the passive voice and by avoiding ambiguous statements. Avoidance of...

Research paper conclusions

In a research paper 'Conclusions' is a separate section, as is the Introduction. It is clearly labelled Conclusions, and follows the sections Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion. In most ways the Conclusion section of a research paper is easier to write than that of an essay or article. It must contain four straightforward elements Conclusions about the hypothesis posed in the introduction_ Did the hypothesis prove to be correct or incorrect How Why How may the problem be...

Hyphen

hyphens are used to join words to make new words. The rules for hyphens are complicated and vary in different publishing houses and between individual writers. American English uses rather fewer hyphens than British English. If you are in doubt, check in a dictionary. hyphens are most commonly used in the following kinds of compounds cone-shaped piece of stock problem-solving steps Garbage in-garbage out GIGO is the description the computer personnel used for invalid data inputs and sometimes...

Example of an introduction to a research paper

As recycling paper becomes more common throughout the world, new uses for the reprocessed product are increasing. In the recycling process the waste paper is broken down and reformed. A result of the process is that the new paper has shorter fibres and is more brittle, with less tensile strength than the original paper. Finding ways of adding strength to the recycled product, therefore making it a more usable material was the purpose behind this research project. This passage would then be...

What language can I use when making general statements

The main principle is to tone down your statements, make them less absolute. For more ideas about this, see hedging. tend not to , have a tendency to It appears seems to that It would seem appear to that _ adverbs of frequency avoid absolutes like always never sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and again mainly, primarily, principally, chiefly, above all, overall in general, on the whole, as a rule, largely especially, particularly, notably clearly, obviously, evidently, distinctly,...

Example paragraphs

1 The following overlong sentence is almost unintelligible Axis-boundary conditions for the SGS stresses in case of scale similarity and mixed-type models are specified in terms of GS velocities at the axis so as to be compatible in the statistical mean with expressions for the axis values of following from the kinematics of homogeneous axissymmetric turbulences as well as from the statistically averaged dynamic equations for the GS velocity field taking into account statistically steady and...

How is the present perfect used

It is commonly used in the introduction, particularly when you want to recapitulate the state of the art and show what work has been done and is still in progress. See also Section 4.4 on the Passive Voice Recent progress in materials science, the development of new sophisticated application-designed materials, and especially the unique qualities of composite materials, have given a renewed interest in the problems arising when several different material phases interact with each other._ This...

Future tense with will

This is not so frequently used as the present and past tenses. Use it when explaining how you intend to present information, give examples or describe visuals. It also indicates future events or parts of your work that come later. The following examples of converting English units will employ a technique known as multiplying by We will consider here the operating environment._ Item number I 'concrete' will be examined to clarify further the spreadsheet results._ NOTE Do not use the future...

Methods and Materials

In this section the researcher cites all the specifics of the work done. Every detail needs to be included. The reason that this section must be completely documented is so that other researchers can duplicate the studies and hopefully duplicate the findings. Variables matter and need to be detailed. The failure to list pertinent particulars will throw all of the research and conclusions into question. Methods and Materials answers the following questions What equipment and other materials...

What language can I use to express agreement

The following verbs and phrases express varying degrees of agreement. Verbs such as agree are normally used in the active form with a personal subject except in the examples given above ._ We entirely agree with his views on We are in complete agreement with We would strongly endorse X's opinion on Our findings support those of We would agree with Xin principle, but By and large, we accept whatX says, but _

How long should a paraphrase be

There is no set length, as it depends on how much of a writer's work you want to refer to, and in how much detail. In some cases, paraphrasing may simply involve reducing, or summarising, what the original writer has said into a single sentence The first published professional response to ape language studies was an article by Jacob Bronowski and Ursula Bellugi 1970 . They argued that although chimpanzees might be able to use reference, they could not break grammatical units down to their...

Sample phrases you can use in conclusions

This research paper has clearly shown that The discussion in this article has given an overview of This paper has provided a systematic study of From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that The aim of the present paper was to examine whether and this has now been achieved. Finally, it is worth pointing out that Indicating the limitations of your own work_ This article has only been able to touch on the most general features of Even a preliminary study, such as the one...

Sample phrases you can use in introductions

In this paper, it will be shown that In this paper, will be discussed are considered. The present paper examines presents Our My intention here is to highlight In the following pages, we shall propose This article will concentrate focus on the arguments The key question that this article will address is whether This paper will report on work already carried out in this area. Relating your paper to current work_ In recent years, has become a topic of lively debate. The issue of has become...