A summary

By its very nature this must be written last. It should only be between 150 and 300 words (2 paragraphs) long, and include points in the cover letter. An introduction. Use the introduction to establish the need for the research and the credibility of the researchers to do it. Include Background on the need to be addressed by the research Background on the researchers and their organisation (including degrees, titles and achievements) A needs assessment. This section should answer these...

Analysis of the introduction

The introduction presents the topic Recycled Paper by stating very general information that most readers are already aware of. The topic is narrowed down to a particular problem with recycled paper its lack of structural strength. This is then further narrowed down to a thesis statement, saying that hemp is the solution to the problem. Note that the writer suggests that hemp may perhaps have something more to offer the paper industry than just its strength Note how the writer goes beyond the...

Are there any guidelines for summary writing

Read the whole of the original text quickly to gain an impression of its content and its relevance to your work 2. Highlight the main points as you read 3. Make notes of your own on these points 4. Put away the original and rewrite your notes in your own words in complete sentences 5. Begin your summary with a statement of the main idea at the start. Don't forget to include referencing of your source. 6. Using your notes, write out your subsidiary or supporting points in coherent,...

Articles

Correctly using and choosing the proper article is one of the biggest problems in English grammar. The indefinite articles, a an, can be used to talk about * one particular person or thing, when it is mentioned for the first time, or when the reader does not know which one is meant, or when it does not matter which one. The definite article, the, can be used * when the noun is singled out as unique or specific * when the reader already knows which particular person(s) or thing(s) etc you are...

CD is a Cellular Receptor for Human Herpesvirus

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the etiologic agent of exanthum subitum, causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, and has been implicated in multiple sclerosis and in the progression of AIDS. Here, we show that the two major HHV-6 subgroups (A and B) use human CD46 as a cellular receptor. Downregulation of surface CD46 was documented during the course of HHV-6 infection. Both acute infection and cell fusion mediated by HHV-6 were specifically inhibited by a monoclonal...

Chapter STYLE

When publishing in English you need to take account of the general rules which have become accepted as the norm in academic communication. In writing technical and scientific papers in particular, you should aim to achieve objectivity, clarity and precision. In addition, there are conventions governing the use of formal patterns, though the need to establish rapport with your audience and to make your writing reader-friendly has an influence on determining your selection of formal or informal...

Contents

If research done, findings found, conclusions drawn are not presented to the world then it is arguable whether they are of any real use at all. The reason for the research paper is to present the findings to the world, to share the information learned for others to do with it what they will. Why the research was originally conducted is of interest, but the researcher's intentions, goals and conclusions are not the end. For example, a zoologist's published observations...

Contracted verb forms

These are the representations in writing of verb forms normal in speech a letter in the verb has been omitted, as indicated by an apostrophe. These contractions should be avoided in academic writing. This is a problem of linear algebra which won't be discussed here. This is a problem of linear algebra which will not be discussed here. Ii is true that nowadays contracted verb forms can be found in scientific publications as they are increasingly regarded as a way of producing informality, thus...

Contrasting

Contrasting is a specific kind of comparison. Whereas in comparing you normally look for at least one feature that the two or more objects have in common, in contrasting you aim to identify the differences between them. Here are some useful sentence structures by its (a certain characteristic) Some common conjunctions and sentence linkers for expressing contrast Some common conjunctions and sentence linkers for expressing contrast The RAM differs from the ROM in that it can be written into as...

Elements in a title

In technical and scientific writing the title is a precise description of the contents. It should include specific words to indicate the following the topic, that is, the main, general subject you are writing about the focus, that is, a detailed narrowing down of the topic into the particular, limited area of your research optionally, for a scientific article, the purpose of your writing. This means including a word such as the following, which tells the reader what kind of argumentation to...

Format of references

The basic guidelines below apply to how you lay out the details about a source in a footnote, an endnote or a bibliography. For how you actually cite a source in your text see Section 4.8 Quoting. The examples given follow APA style, as governed by The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Check whether this style actually applies to your own discipline. Reference to a book. Information to include * names of the author(s) surname first, with initials for given names *...

Generalising

This sometimes involves summation, or the summing up of what has gone before. Phrases include the following. See also Section 4.6 Generalising. * in general, on the whole, by and large, in total, as a rule, for the most part, broadly speaking, speaking generally, usually * altogether, overall, thus, obviously On the whole, sharp-cut-off type filters turned out to be more problematic from a numerical point of view and inferior to top-hat-filters._ In total, in nearly every respect, the best a...

How are the punctuation marks used Comma This is used

* between two independent clauses with different subjects if they are part of a series or are joined by and, but, so and or. The reactor was out of control, the content overheated, and the safety valve failed._ The diagnostic work is normally done by the computer, but the technician must be able to understand the various computer operating systems and to use the system's software._ * if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause in a sentence When the liquid boils, a residue is formed....

How do I do intext referencing

The same guidelines described in Section 4.8 on Quoting apply to paraphrasing. Language to use to introduce paraphrases You can use the same 'reporting' verbs for paraphrasing as are given in Section 4.8 on Quoting. In particular, verbs that reflect the original writer's purpose or attitude towards his her subject are useful when paraphrasing, e.g. Xdefends his position by arguing that Xattacks his opponents with his statement that Xaffirms his opinion that _ Note that the 'reporting' verb can...

How is the present tense used

It is used to state facts that are generally valid from the point of view of the writer. Therefore, use it in the following situations * when writing about your topic or background Lasers are devices which amplify light and produce beams of light which are very intense, directional, Little is known about HPS systems , which are the subject of the following chapter._ Here we investigate the properties of the above mentioned metals._ The perturbation method we develop here applies to any crack...

In what different ways can things be compared Similarity

When you want to emphasise the similarity between two things, you can use the following sentence patterns (about almost roughly essentially the same as The characteristic feature of the totality of natural numbers, , is logically equivalent to the principle of mathematical induction. A point set in S in the plane is called bounded if For a point set in space the definition is similar, we By way of analogy, the ALU may be thought of as a super adding-machine. We define an accumulation point of S...

Language to use to introduce quotations

There are a wide variety of 'reporting' verbs and verb phrases that you can use to introduce a quotation. Here are some of the more common ones Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs * If you use MLA Style, you should put the verbs in the present tense both for personal comments and for quotations. * If you use APA style (more common for the natural sciences), you should put the verbs in the past tense for citations, and only use the...

Other prefixes with specific meanings

Many other prefixes are used in English. Below is a list of prefixes which are useful in helping you to understand unfamiliar words. Some of these words are used with a hyphen. Check in a dictionary if you are not sure. atypical, anhydrous (not containing water) infra-red (below the wavelenght of red) outwear (wear or last longer than) outlying (beyond the main body) overproduction overlie (to lie on top of) paratyphoid (disease similar to typhus but of different origin) quadrivalent (having a...

Points to be covered in the introduction to a research paper

The introduction to a research paper should involve the reader by answering these questions What was your reason for doing the research What in general was the research attempting to find out What was your hypothesis or thesis What specifically was the research attempting to prove What background information is pertinent to an understanding of the paper What literature is pertinent What other studies have explored the subject (Note that all literature must be fully documented. See Section 2.10...

Points to check in your own writing

Here are some simple tasks for you to see if you are constructing paragraphs properly. Take one or two pages of your academic writing. Do a 'visual' check on the length of paragraphs - does the text look too heavy or too 'bitty' or about right Check whether the average length of the paragraphs is between 7 and 14 lines (3 to 7 sentences) Count the number of words in randomly selected sentences. Does the average number of words come to between 15 and 25 If so, this is about right. Do the 'skim'...

Points to check in your writing

the passive forms is placed on given to by are preferable in English to the active During the last two years of study, increasing emphasis is placed on practical training._ Figure 6 in the previous section shows that, for the Lorenz system, better results are given by quadratic than linear functions._ using passive constructions is one way of avoiding the first person singular in technical or scientific writing In long sentences active constructions are better because the verb in passive...

Prefixes with the meaning not

The most common prefixes used to give a negative meaning to adjectives, and some verbs and nouns, are as follows used before words beginning with m or p used before some words beginning with l used before some words beginning with r used before a limited number of words used before some adjectives and a few verbs Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its negative. So when you learn a new adjective, note down whether it has an opposite formed...

Proportionality and disproportionality

When two objects, X and Y, are considered in relation to each other, the variability of certain of their features or characteristics can be compared. The comparison may produce either a proportional or a disproportional result. You can use the following sentence structures The higher the velocity of steam, the greater the turbine speed. Data input rise and fall times reduce as driver output impedance increases. The critical twist value, after which strength decreases, is lower for the former,...

Reference to an article from a journal Information to include

* year of publication, in parentheses * title of the article, without quotation marks or underlining, with only the first word capitalised * name of the journal underlined, with all major words having a capital letter * inclusive page numbers, not preceded by p or pp. Linear and non-linear strategies in computer-based writing Reference to an unpublished work. The information would appear as follows Reference to an unpublished work. The information would appear as follows Survey of postgraduate...

Some other punctuation conventions in technicalscientific writing three dots are used to indicate an unfinished

In a similar manner, multiplication factors of 1, 2, 3, can be achieved. the oblique stroke or slash is used to abbreviate your text, especially when you want to specify alternatives or sub-sectioning highly efficient input output features quotation marks, italics, bold face and capitals can be used to indicate emphasis Now that we have the big picture of industrial automation, we can appreciate two of the main components of the factory automation scheme.

Superiority and inferiority

This means saying how something is better or worse than something else, with regard to particular features. Phrases you can use include in being in that it is inasmuch as it is more + noun greater + noun less + noun The reciprocating pump is superior to the rotary pump in being more efficient. The yarn strength of air-vortex spun yarns is somewhat inferior to that of rotor-spun yarns, a 5 difference in strength being reported.

The structure of a scientific article

Articles and essays need to be a seamless whole paragraph flowing into paragraph, ideas presented smoothly in logical order. Structurally they can be broken down into these three parts _ Each of these is covered in a section in Chapter 2 on Composition. Articles and essays need to be well thought out and ordered. How the writer introduces the piece, builds on the introduction through the body, and concludes will largely determine how the information is accepted. Step by step, the writer must...

Using the passive voice in impersonal writing

Scientific writing is usually done in an impersonal style. Information and facts are more important than personal opinions or attitudes. This style is also used to put a certain distance between the writer and the arguments proposed and thus makes them more objective. We can distinguish limits to other technical systems by Limits to other technical systems can be distinguished by. In the present article I want to The present article is intended to contribute. and as a result we selected the...

What is the difference between summarising and paraphrasing

There are clear similarities between the two since both involve the re-writing of an author's ideas in your own words. (See Section 4.7 Paraphrasing) However, the main differences are a summary is likely to be shorter. Whereas paraphrasing may involve keeping more or less to the same length as the original, a summary could be the reduction of a long paragraph to a sentence, an article to a paragraph or a book to a page. a summary will keep to the structure and content of the original more...

What kinds of quotation are there

Quotations in your text can either be direct that is, you use the actual words of the original writer, or indirect that is, you paraphrase what the original source says by putting the ideas in your own words. In general, it is preferable to use the indirect, or paraphrasing, method since this incorporates the other author's ideas better into the flow of your own text. However, there are occasions when the author expresses an idea in a particularly succinct or memorable way that it is impossible...

What language can be used in classifications

The following prepositional phrases are very useful when talking about the feature used for classification (item 2 above) The following sentence patterns can be used to explain the way in which something can be classified Commercially, steel castings are classified as follows (a) low-carbon steels (carbon content below 0.20) (b) medium-carbon steels (carbon content between 0.20 and 0.50 )

What language can I use for real definitions

Real definitions include these functions Defining an object Geometry may be said to be a study of the properties of geometric figures. By a set of real numbers we mean an aggregate or class of numbers. Defining an object by assigning it to a category and specifying it Defining an object by assigning it to a category and specifying it participle clause + to infinitive for + gerund A pyrometer is an instrument for measuring high temperatures. Milling is a machining process in which a rotary...

Word Order

English is generally considered to be a language with a relatively fixed word order. In practice, this means that the positions of the subject S, the main verb V, and the object O are fixed in relation to each other. In normal statements, which form the bulk of technical and scientific writing, these items occur regularly in the order S-V-O. Many flexible objects and structures The problem in technical and scientific writing is that parts of a sentence, particularly the subject, can become too...

How can I choose the correct article

Here is a flow chart which may aid you in correctly choosing the proper article. The following example will help you to use the flow chart (the analysed nouns are in italics) One form of listening to (music) (1) is by using CDs. The CD is (digital system) (2). The player's laser reads a series of (on off pulses) (3), without physically touching the disc's surface. Not every pulse must be read accurately - as long as the number of reading errors remains below a certain limit, (reconstruction) of...

What language can I use for nominal definitions

Here are some of the sentence patterns you can use Here are some of the sentence patterns you can use A curve is called smooth if two conditions are satisfied (1) (2) A function f(s) defined by f(s) f is called the Laplace transform of the function f(t). The term computer normally refers to a general-purpose, high-speed, programmable machine that is designed to handle a wide range of computer problems.

When is summary writing useful

Apart from the need to summarise other writers' ideas at particular points when writing a research paper, the skill is valuable in these situations when reviewing an article or book when annotating a bibliography entry In addition, of course, it is useful to develop the skill by keeping summary 'note cards' on other works that you read. In particular, this will help you to avoid plagiarism, since by writing from notes you will be presenting information in your own words.

How can I use language to emphasise points

In spoken English, you can emphasise parts of a sentence simply by using stress on important words. In writing, of course, we cannot do this. Instead, we can emphasise particular words or phrases by putting everything into a kind of relative clause except the words we want to emphasise. These structures are called cleft sentences. R ntgen discovered X-Rays in 1895. (no emphasis) It was R ntgen who discovered X-Rays in 1895. (emphasis on the person) It was in 1895 that R ntgen discovered X-Rays....

Semicolon

the semi-colon is weaker than a full stop, but stronger than a comma. You can use it to join two independent but closely related sentences This section will consider the communication electronics technician another section will be devoted to the computer electronics technician. you can also use the semi-colon in complicated lists, for example, to show sub-grouping Six excellent career fields within mechanical engineering technology are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning HVAC mechanical...

Sequencing referring backwards or forwards

Time relationships may be signalled by various phrases and words, such as adjectives, adverbs and verbs or noun phrases. These can also be used to show the logical relationship between ideas or to connect what you are saying with something you said previously. Words and phrases include _ so far, earlier, previous ly , before that, until now, already, formerly at present, presently, meanwhile, at this point first of all, to begin with, to start with finally, eventually, afterwards, later, above...

Describing Tables and Graphs

Probably the most important thing to keep in mind when describing graphs and tables is how to convey the information properly and accurately. Surprisingly, relatively few key words or grammar elements are needed when describing trends or movements. The following vocabulary items can be used to stay at the same level to remain constant

Research paper conclusions

In a research paper 'Conclusions' is a separate section, as is the Introduction. It is clearly labelled Conclusions, and follows the sections Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion. In most ways the Conclusion section of a research paper is easier to write than that of an essay or article. It must contain four straightforward elements Conclusions about the hypothesis posed in the introduction_ Did the hypothesis prove to be correct or incorrect How Why How may the problem be...

Hyphen

hyphens are used to join words to make new words. The rules for hyphens are complicated and vary in different publishing houses and between individual writers. American English uses rather fewer hyphens than British English. If you are in doubt, check in a dictionary. hyphens are most commonly used in the following kinds of compounds cone-shaped piece of stock problem-solving steps Garbage in-garbage out GIGO is the description the computer personnel used for invalid data inputs and sometimes...

Example of an introduction to a research paper

As recycling paper becomes more common throughout the world, new uses for the reprocessed product are increasing. In the recycling process the waste paper is broken down and reformed. A result of the process is that the new paper has shorter fibres and is more brittle, with less tensile strength than the original paper. Finding ways of adding strength to the recycled product, therefore making it a more usable material was the purpose behind this research project. This passage would then be...

What language can I use when making general statements

The main principle is to tone down your statements, make them less absolute. For more ideas about this, see hedging. tend not to , have a tendency to It appears seems to that It would seem appear to that _ adverbs of frequency avoid absolutes like always never sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and again mainly, primarily, principally, chiefly, above all, overall in general, on the whole, as a rule, largely especially, particularly, notably clearly, obviously, evidently, distinctly,...

Methods and Materials

In this section the researcher cites all the specifics of the work done. Every detail needs to be included. The reason that this section must be completely documented is so that other researchers can duplicate the studies and hopefully duplicate the findings. Variables matter and need to be detailed. The failure to list pertinent particulars will throw all of the research and conclusions into question. Methods and Materials answers the following questions What equipment and other materials...

What language can I use to express agreement

The following verbs and phrases express varying degrees of agreement. Verbs such as agree are normally used in the active form with a personal subject except in the examples given above ._ We entirely agree with his views on We are in complete agreement with We would strongly endorse X's opinion on Our findings support those of We would agree with Xin principle, but By and large, we accept whatX says, but _

How long should a paraphrase be

There is no set length, as it depends on how much of a writer's work you want to refer to, and in how much detail. In some cases, paraphrasing may simply involve reducing, or summarising, what the original writer has said into a single sentence The first published professional response to ape language studies was an article by Jacob Bronowski and Ursula Bellugi 1970 . They argued that although chimpanzees might be able to use reference, they could not break grammatical units down to their...

Sample phrases you can use in conclusions

This research paper has clearly shown that The discussion in this article has given an overview of This paper has provided a systematic study of From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that The aim of the present paper was to examine whether and this has now been achieved. Finally, it is worth pointing out that Indicating the limitations of your own work_ This article has only been able to touch on the most general features of Even a preliminary study, such as the one...

What are the basic rules for using the articles

The indefinite article a an is used with singular countable nouns referring to a non-unique item in general separate objects, people, ideas, etc. separate objects, people, ideas, etc. The definite article the is used with nouns referring to a unique specific item. A noun can have a definite article when it is modified by a superlative or ordinal number_ the first experiment the last measurement the most significant results the only time it refers to an entire type or species The telephone can...

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing means expressing the thought, meaning and attitude of another author in your own words, in a clear and straightforward way. It is therefore similar to quoting, but it is done indirectly, without using the original writer's actual words or speech marks. With paraphrasing, you avoid continuous strings of direct quotations and are able to maintain your own style and tone of writing. However, as with direct quoting, it is essential that you do proper referencing for all your...

How are adverbs formed

We can distinguish three types of adverbs derivational mostly derived from adjectives with -ly equally, finally, markedly sideways, clockwise, northwards Adjectives ending in both -ic and -ical have adverbs ending in -ically. The exception is public adverb publicly . The adjectives with asterisks have different meanings - electric used with names of particular machines, e.g. electric motor, electric blanket - electrical used before more general words, e.g. electrical appliances, electrical...

What types of abstracts are there

Descriptive abstract this provides a kind of 'contents list' of what will be in the paper what the writer will deal with or attempt to prove in the article, rather than a synopsis of the actual results. Since it contains general statements, it is more appropriate for longer papers, such as review articles, and can be written before the paper itself is drafted. Informative abstract this does not simply describe what will be in the paper, but also gives a summary of the main factual information,...

How should I make use of general statements in my writing

Your main, or 'topic', sentence in a paragraph is often a general statement which is then explained, amplified, supported, exemplified or modified in the rest of the paragraph. The first sentence in the paragraph below is a general statement round which the rest of the paragraph is structured. See also Section 2.3 Paragraph Writing. Industry produces a large number of poisonous metal wastes, most of which are very dangerous to humans. There are five extremely dangerous ones lead, cadmium,...

Apostrophe

you use an apostrophe most frequently to indicate the possessive, either singular or plural. The same meaning can be expressed by a phrase with of. Checking a product's quality characteristics is called inspection. Checking the quality characteristics of a product is called inspection. Technical sales involves the selling of machine technology to meet customers' specific needs. Technical sales involves the selling of machine technology to meet the specific needs of customers. you use it when...

Use of first person pronouns

It is best for writers to avoid describing their findings in the first person I me my, since normally these pronouns would only be used by famous and important researchers or representatives of schools. In general, structures with we us our are preferred. This also has a rhetorical function it implies the inclusion of the author as a co-member of a group. Thus if you want to state whether you are able to present positive, successful results or not, you can say We do not yet know

What is the difference between countable and uncountable nouns

The distinction between these two types of nouns is very important in English and understanding this will help you to use articles more accurately. Most nouns are either countable or uncountable, while some can be either, depending on the meaning or the context. Countable nouns are things we can count. We use them with the indefinite article a an, and we can make them plural. car table job experiment employer teacher laboratory suggestion Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. They...

Confusing adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs can express the same idea, but whereas you use an adverb to modify a verb or adjective, adjectives can only be applied to nouns. Platinum has exceptional resistance to corrosion. Platinum is exceptionally corrosion-resistant. Iron is easy to extract from iron ores. It is easy to extract from iron ores. Iron can easily be extracted from iron ores.

What are the elements in a classification model

The classification model consists of these elements. Note that the feature used for classification may, or may not, be actually named in the final description. the superordinate term the overall word that includes all the others the items grouped together in a class The light gages of low-carbon flat-rolled steel products are classified as hot-rolled sheets, cold-rolled sheets, hot-rolled strip, and the still lighter gages as tin mill black plate.

Using tentative verb forms

Statements that are too direct or over-positive can be softened as in these examples Statements that are too direct or over-positive can be softened as in these examples The investigations of the present work contribute to the model and filter components of LES The investigations of the present work are intended as a contribution to the model and filter components of LES. We propose a methodological approach. The use of equivalence factors for ecotoxic effect should be rejected It is better for...

Cause and effect

Words and phrases for expressing cause and effect are necessary for linking the different parts of a text. They are used to establish a logical connection between facts. This connecting function may be expressed by conjunctions, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and or nouns. The most common phrases for introducing cause are due to, owing to, because of, resulting from be caused by, spark off, give rise to, provoke, generate, bring about, stem from, arise out of, originate from, result from, enable...