When is summary writing useful

Apart from the need to summarise other writers' ideas at particular points when writing a research paper, the skill is valuable in these situations when reviewing an article or book when annotating a bibliography entry In addition, of course, it is useful to develop the skill by keeping summary 'note cards' on other works that you read. In particular, this will help you to avoid plagiarism, since by writing from notes you will be presenting information in your own words.

How can I use language to emphasise points

In spoken English, you can emphasise parts of a sentence simply by using stress on important words. In writing, of course, we cannot do this. Instead, we can emphasise particular words or phrases by putting everything into a kind of relative clause except the words we want to emphasise. These structures are called cleft sentences. R ntgen discovered X-Rays in 1895. (no emphasis) It was R ntgen who discovered X-Rays in 1895. (emphasis on the person) It was in 1895 that R ntgen discovered X-Rays....

Coherence in your writing

Each sentence should follow on logically from the previous one and lead into the next one, as does each paragraph, idea, concept, argument and example, on to the conclusion. For each section, decide what the function of your writing is at that particular stage. Refer to the sections in Chapter 4 Language Functions for suggested words and phrases to help you in your writing. You should not include anything that does not directly contribute to your goal. Fascinating...

Semicolon

the semi-colon is weaker than a full stop, but stronger than a comma. You can use it to join two independent but closely related sentences This section will consider the communication electronics technician another section will be devoted to the computer electronics technician. you can also use the semi-colon in complicated lists, for example, to show sub-grouping Six excellent career fields within mechanical engineering technology are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning HVAC mechanical...

Sequencing referring backwards or forwards

Time relationships may be signalled by various phrases and words, such as adjectives, adverbs and verbs or noun phrases. These can also be used to show the logical relationship between ideas or to connect what you are saying with something you said previously. Words and phrases include _ so far, earlier, previous ly , before that, until now, already, formerly at present, presently, meanwhile, at this point first of all, to begin with, to start with finally, eventually, afterwards, later, above...

Describing Tables and Graphs

Probably the most important thing to keep in mind when describing graphs and tables is how to convey the information properly and accurately. Surprisingly, relatively few key words or grammar elements are needed when describing trends or movements. The following vocabulary items can be used to stay at the same level to remain constant

Research paper conclusions

In a research paper 'Conclusions' is a separate section, as is the Introduction. It is clearly labelled Conclusions, and follows the sections Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion. In most ways the Conclusion section of a research paper is easier to write than that of an essay or article. It must contain four straightforward elements Conclusions about the hypothesis posed in the introduction_ Did the hypothesis prove to be correct or incorrect How Why How may the problem be...

Hyphen

hyphens are used to join words to make new words. The rules for hyphens are complicated and vary in different publishing houses and between individual writers. American English uses rather fewer hyphens than British English. If you are in doubt, check in a dictionary. hyphens are most commonly used in the following kinds of compounds cone-shaped piece of stock problem-solving steps Garbage in-garbage out GIGO is the description the computer personnel used for invalid data inputs and sometimes...

Example of an introduction to a research paper

As recycling paper becomes more common throughout the world, new uses for the reprocessed product are increasing. In the recycling process the waste paper is broken down and reformed. A result of the process is that the new paper has shorter fibres and is more brittle, with less tensile strength than the original paper. Finding ways of adding strength to the recycled product, therefore making it a more usable material was the purpose behind this research project. This passage would then be...

What language can I use when making general statements

The main principle is to tone down your statements, make them less absolute. For more ideas about this, see hedging. tend not to , have a tendency to It appears seems to that It would seem appear to that _ adverbs of frequency avoid absolutes like always never sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and again mainly, primarily, principally, chiefly, above all, overall in general, on the whole, as a rule, largely especially, particularly, notably clearly, obviously, evidently, distinctly,...

Future tense with will

This is not so frequently used as the present and past tenses. Use it when explaining how you intend to present information, give examples or describe visuals. It also indicates future events or parts of your work that come later. The following examples of converting English units will employ a technique known as multiplying by We will consider here the operating environment._ Item number I 'concrete' will be examined to clarify further the spreadsheet results._ NOTE Do not use the future...

Methods and Materials

In this section the researcher cites all the specifics of the work done. Every detail needs to be included. The reason that this section must be completely documented is so that other researchers can duplicate the studies and hopefully duplicate the findings. Variables matter and need to be detailed. The failure to list pertinent particulars will throw all of the research and conclusions into question. Methods and Materials answers the following questions What equipment and other materials...

What language can I use to express agreement

The following verbs and phrases express varying degrees of agreement. Verbs such as agree are normally used in the active form with a personal subject except in the examples given above ._ We entirely agree with his views on We are in complete agreement with We would strongly endorse X's opinion on Our findings support those of We would agree with Xin principle, but By and large, we accept whatX says, but _

How long should a paraphrase be

There is no set length, as it depends on how much of a writer's work you want to refer to, and in how much detail. In some cases, paraphrasing may simply involve reducing, or summarising, what the original writer has said into a single sentence The first published professional response to ape language studies was an article by Jacob Bronowski and Ursula Bellugi 1970 . They argued that although chimpanzees might be able to use reference, they could not break grammatical units down to their...

Sample phrases you can use in conclusions

This research paper has clearly shown that The discussion in this article has given an overview of This paper has provided a systematic study of From the research that has been carried out, we can conclude that The aim of the present paper was to examine whether and this has now been achieved. Finally, it is worth pointing out that Indicating the limitations of your own work_ This article has only been able to touch on the most general features of Even a preliminary study, such as the one...

Sample phrases you can use in introductions

In this paper, it will be shown that In this paper, will be discussed are considered. The present paper examines presents Our My intention here is to highlight In the following pages, we shall propose This article will concentrate focus on the arguments The key question that this article will address is whether This paper will report on work already carried out in this area. Relating your paper to current work_ In recent years, has become a topic of lively debate. The issue of has become...

What are the basic rules for using the articles

The indefinite article a an is used with singular countable nouns referring to a non-unique item in general separate objects, people, ideas, etc. separate objects, people, ideas, etc. The definite article the is used with nouns referring to a unique specific item. A noun can have a definite article when it is modified by a superlative or ordinal number_ the first experiment the last measurement the most significant results the only time it refers to an entire type or species The telephone can...

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing means expressing the thought, meaning and attitude of another author in your own words, in a clear and straightforward way. It is therefore similar to quoting, but it is done indirectly, without using the original writer's actual words or speech marks. With paraphrasing, you avoid continuous strings of direct quotations and are able to maintain your own style and tone of writing. However, as with direct quoting, it is essential that you do proper referencing for all your...

How are adverbs formed

We can distinguish three types of adverbs derivational mostly derived from adjectives with -ly equally, finally, markedly sideways, clockwise, northwards Adjectives ending in both -ic and -ical have adverbs ending in -ically. The exception is public adverb publicly . The adjectives with asterisks have different meanings - electric used with names of particular machines, e.g. electric motor, electric blanket - electrical used before more general words, e.g. electrical appliances, electrical...

What types of abstracts are there

Descriptive abstract this provides a kind of 'contents list' of what will be in the paper what the writer will deal with or attempt to prove in the article, rather than a synopsis of the actual results. Since it contains general statements, it is more appropriate for longer papers, such as review articles, and can be written before the paper itself is drafted. Informative abstract this does not simply describe what will be in the paper, but also gives a summary of the main factual information,...

How should I make use of general statements in my writing

Your main, or 'topic', sentence in a paragraph is often a general statement which is then explained, amplified, supported, exemplified or modified in the rest of the paragraph. The first sentence in the paragraph below is a general statement round which the rest of the paragraph is structured. See also Section 2.3 Paragraph Writing. Industry produces a large number of poisonous metal wastes, most of which are very dangerous to humans. There are five extremely dangerous ones lead, cadmium,...

How can I express disagreement

There are a variety of verbs and other phrases for expressing disagreement. In particular, some phrases are useful when refuting, or arguing against, another scholar's findings. We completely disagree with X on this point. We are in total disagreement with Regretfully , we are unable to accept X's conclusion that We are not at all convinced by X's argument that We have to say that X's argument is somewhat unconvincing. Some linking phrases for contradicting what someone else has written Here...

Use of first person pronouns

It is best for writers to avoid describing their findings in the first person I me my, since normally these pronouns would only be used by famous and important researchers or representatives of schools. In general, structures with we us our are preferred. This also has a rhetorical function it implies the inclusion of the author as a co-member of a group. Thus if you want to state whether you are able to present positive, successful results or not, you can say We do not yet know

What is the difference between countable and uncountable nouns

The distinction between these two types of nouns is very important in English and understanding this will help you to use articles more accurately. Most nouns are either countable or uncountable, while some can be either, depending on the meaning or the context. Countable nouns are things we can count. We use them with the indefinite article a an, and we can make them plural. car table job experiment employer teacher laboratory suggestion Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. They...

Confusing adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs can express the same idea, but whereas you use an adverb to modify a verb or adjective, adjectives can only be applied to nouns. Platinum has exceptional resistance to corrosion. Platinum is exceptionally corrosion-resistant. Iron is easy to extract from iron ores. It is easy to extract from iron ores. Iron can easily be extracted from iron ores.

Why is hedging important in scientific writing

Authors of scientific articles generally write in an impersonal style in order to sound more objective and convincing. They also want to avoid showing their personal attitude to their subject or an over-strong commitment to a particular conclusion, so hedging what they say is a way of accomplishing this. It thus involves not expressing the truth of a claim too strongly. Too direct and straightforward argumentation may give the impression of over-confidence and this could puzzle some readers,...

What are the elements in a classification model

The classification model consists of these elements. Note that the feature used for classification may, or may not, be actually named in the final description. the superordinate term the overall word that includes all the others the items grouped together in a class The light gages of low-carbon flat-rolled steel products are classified as hot-rolled sheets, cold-rolled sheets, hot-rolled strip, and the still lighter gages as tin mill black plate.

Using tentative verb forms

Statements that are too direct or over-positive can be softened as in these examples Statements that are too direct or over-positive can be softened as in these examples The investigations of the present work contribute to the model and filter components of LES The investigations of the present work are intended as a contribution to the model and filter components of LES. We propose a methodological approach. The use of equivalence factors for ecotoxic effect should be rejected It is better for...

Cause and effect

Words and phrases for expressing cause and effect are necessary for linking the different parts of a text. They are used to establish a logical connection between facts. This connecting function may be expressed by conjunctions, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and or nouns. The most common phrases for introducing cause are due to, owing to, because of, resulting from be caused by, spark off, give rise to, provoke, generate, bring about, stem from, arise out of, originate from, result from, enable...