Apostrophe

* you use an apostrophe most frequently to indicate the possessive, either singular or plural. The same meaning can be expressed by a phrase with of.

apostrophe

of phrase

Checking a product's quality characteristics is called inspection.

Checking the quality characteristics of a product is called inspection.

Technical sales involves the selling of machine technology to meet customers' specific needs.

Technical sales involves the selling of machine technology to meet the specific needs of customers.

* you use it when referring to other scientists' work. When referring to two or more people together, the apostrophe goes after the last name. When you refer to a famous or generally accepted discovery, the apostrophe is not needed.

To coincide with Ponte Castaneda's lower bound for the strain potential ... In this paper, Cauchy's and Novozhilov's measures of mean rotation are compared

2 scientists together

Iwan and Moeller's (1976) work appears to be the first publication on this subject.

famous discovery

the Curie point, the Doppler effect

* The apostrophe can also be used to form plurals of numbers, abbreviations, and symbols, though it can also be left out:

the early 1990's (OR: the early 1990s)

first add up all the X's (OR: first add up all the Xs)

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