How are adverbs formed

We can distinguish three types of adverbs:

simple

just, only, well, back, out, etc.

compound

therefore, hereby, herewith, etc.

derivational (mostly derived from adjectives with -ly)

equally, finally, markedly sideways, clockwise, northwards

Adjectives ending in both -ic and -ical have adverbs ending in -ically. The exception is public (adverb: publicly).

adjective

academic

chemical

geometric, geometrical

electric, electrical*

economic, economical*

adverb

academically

chemically

geometrically

electrically

economically

* The adjectives with asterisks have different meanings:

- electric: used with names of particular machines, e.g. electric motor, electric blanket

- electrical: used before more general words, e.g. electrical appliances, electrical engineering

- economic: refers to the science of economics or the economy of a country, e.g. economic theory, economic problems

- economical: means 'not wasting money', e.g. an economical car (= cheap to run)

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  • ulrich
    How are adverbs formed?
    7 years ago

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