How are the punctuation marks used Comma This is used

* between two independent clauses with different subjects if they are part of a series or are joined by and, but, so and or.

The reactor was out of control, the content overheated, and the safety valve failed._

The diagnostic work is normally done by the computer, but the technician must be able to understand the various computer operating systems and to use the system's software._

* if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause in a sentence

comma

When the liquid boils, a residue is formed.

no comma

A residue is formed when the liquid boils.

* to separate a non-defining relative clause from the rest of the sentence. Note that you have to use which or who, but not that in these sentences. That can be used in defining relative clauses, and there is no comma.

Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, is used to make bolts and screws._

The experiments that were described in the previous section were part of a series that was conducted over a range of mode mixes._

* in a series of three before a conjunction

The bridge circuit consists of four tensometers, a signal source, and a detector.

Some writers leave out the comma before the last item in the series, but then there is the danger of ambiguity. If in doubt, put a comma in.

without final comma

The liquids we analysed were neat methanol, neat ethanol, methanol and 10 percent water and ethanol and 10 percent water._

with final comma

The liquids we analysed were neat methanol, neat ethanol, methanol with 10 percent water, and ethanol with 10 percent water._

to separate linking words and phrases from the rest of the sentence.

On the other hand, the chances of success are great.

The chemical engineer's greatest contribution, however, will be in the development of new energy systems._

* to separate some adverbs, adverbial expressions or other introductory phrases from the rest of the sentence

Additionally, from the technical point of view, the human arm is admirable due to its sensitivity and versatility._

Using physical principles, the thin layers, CN,TIN, AIN ..., can be grown and modified

To avoid undesirable failure during the test, cover the test stand.

It is often essential to separate the initial phrase to avoid confusion or ambiguity:

unclear meaning

After water proteins are the main component of the body.

clear meaning

After water, proteins are the main component of the body.

to provide extra, supporting or explanatory information about a term, in parenthesis to provide extra, supporting or explanatory information about a term, in parenthesis

A completed marriage of CAD and CAM results in a CAD/CAM system, or CADAM system.

ASHRAE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., lists the following job titles that technicians and technologists may qualify for._

note that there is no comma before that in reported speech:

wrong

He proved, that the substance would not disintegrate at high temperatures.

correct He proved that the substance would not disintegrate at high temperatures.

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