How do I do intext referencing

The same guidelines described in Section 4.8 on Quoting apply to paraphrasing. Language to use to introduce paraphrases

■ You can use the same 'reporting' verbs for paraphrasing as are given in Section 4.8 on Quoting. In particular, verbs that reflect the original writer's purpose or attitude towards his/her subject are useful when paraphrasing, e.g.

Xdefends his position by arguing that ... Xattacks his opponents with his statement that... Xaffirms his opinion that..._

■ Note that the 'reporting' verb can be followed by that ... (or this can be omitted). Punctuation: there is no comma before or after that:

Fred Hein explains that each person's heredity is unique, except for identical twins.

The normal grammatical rules for writing indirect speech apply: * When the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb tense in the reported clause, together with pronouns and time phrases may also have to be changed to indicate the correct time references.

MacSpratt (6) found that when sheep were deficient in nitrogen, the rate of mitosis in wool follicles was 63% of normal and concluded that nitrogen is essential to normal growth of wool.

Note that the last verb is is in the present tense: this is because the writer is generalising, or making a conclusion about what he regards as a general truth. If the writer knows that later work found this conclusion to be false, he would use was instead.

■ You can also use the other introductory phrases given in the section on quoting. These in fact are more commonly used with indirect quotations than with direct ones.

■ With indirect quotations, you can also simply put the name of the source at the end of the paraphrase, without any 'reporting' verb or introductory phrase:

Changes in the surface heating of the earth will result in changes in the heating of the atmosphere which in turn can affect the climate (Cohen, 1994).

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