How is the present tense used

It is used to state facts that are generally valid from the point of view of the writer. Therefore, use it in the following situations:

* when writing about your topic or background

Lasers are devices which amplify light and produce beams of light which are very intense, directional, and pure in colour._

Little is known about HPS systems , which are the subject of the following chapter._

* when explaining your purpose

Here we investigate the properties of the above mentioned metals._

The perturbation method we develop here applies to any crack geometry as long as the crack-face weight function solutions are known for the corresponding reference crack._

when presenting results, if the findings are general facts

In cases when the eigenvalue of interest is well separated from the others, K2 tends to increase the natural frequencies of the forward and backward waves but decrease the natural frequency of the reflected wave, just opposite to the effect of M2.

when making general statements, e.g. in conclusions

This observation indicates an obvious inconsistency that is avoided by the introduction of generalised principles._

The author believes that one particular application, where the results can be useful, is the modelling of contact problems involving anisotropic materials._

There are differences in the way the passive and the active forms are used:

* the present simple passive is used when describing a process or procedure (see Section 4.4 on the Passive Voice)

* the present simple active is preferred in physical descriptions, such as describing a piece of apparatus or equipment

The plotter represents another important output device. The plotter makes hard copy of the product represented by digital information in the computer. Most CAD systems use a pen plotter.

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