How should I punctuate quotations

■ if your quotation is short, maybe only two or three words, try to run it within the grammatical flow of your sentence. This means single quotation marks are sufficient (together with appropriate referencing)

The conclusion of their analysis is that commercial nodule mining is unlikely for 'the foreseeable future' (35)._

■ if your quotation is a little longer and is preceded by an introductory phrase, then you can use a comma or a colon before the quotation itself.

In one of his many publications concerning the role of science, Freeman wrote: 'Much scientific research is concerned with the exploration of the unknown. By definition we cannot know the outcome of such explorations and still less can we know its future impact on technology.' (39)

■ most importantly, you must make sure you keep grammatical and logical cohesion between the quotation and your own text. To do this, you may have to add or delete words from the original, though you should keep these changes as small as possible. Where you add words, put square brackets round them.

According to popular view of evolution, even after Darwin, 'each [species] could realise its inner potential, which gradually unfolded.' (Kuper, 1985, p. 4)

■ if you omit some of the author's original words which are not relevant to your purpose, use three dots (...) to show where you have left the words out.

Case argued that the stage concept is valid: '... children go through the same sequence of substages across a wide variety of content domains, and ... they do so at the same rate, and during the same age range.' (Case, 1985, p.231)

■ if the quotation contains another quotation, then use single quotation marks ('...') for your quotation and double quotation marks for the author's quotation ("...").

A New Scientist survey of 1982 concluded that this was 'in accord with the ideas expressed by C. P. Snow (1964) when he spoke of "the gulf of mutual incomprehension that lies between the literary and scientific worlds".' (3)

■ if your quotation is long, say, more than three lines, then it should be indented as a separate paragraph. In this case, there are no quotation marks at all.

James (1983) devoted a whole chapter to instinct. He began with the following statement:

Instinct is usually defined as the faculty of acting is such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends, and without previous education in the performance They are functional correlates of structure. With the presence of a certain organ goes, one may say, almost always a native aptitude for its use. (p. 1004)

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