Language to use to introduce quotations

■ There are a wide variety of 'reporting' verbs and verb phrases that you can use to introduce a quotation. Here are some of the more common ones

acknowledge ...

admit .

allege ...

argue ...

assert...

assume .

believe .

claim ...

conclude ...

contend .

demonstrate .

describe ...

emphasise

explain ...

imply .

indicate ...

make the point...

observe ...

point out .

postulate ...

predict...

propose .

prove .

report...

say...

show .

state .

suggest...

think ...

write

Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs:

Be careful about the verb tenses of these verbs:

* If you use MLA Style, you should put the verbs in the present tense both for personal comments and for quotations.

* If you use APA style (more common for the natural sciences), you should put the verbs in the past tense for citations, and only use the present tense for generalisations and statements about unchanging facts. (See the example quotations above).

■ You can introduce your citation with any of these longer phrases:

According to X, .

X was of the opinion that .

X distinguished between . and .

X characterised / considered / defined / recognised / referred to / regarded . as . X illustrated his / her argument by saying / stating / showing that . X laid particular emphasis on . X makes the following claim /point / statement: . X put forward the theory that .

Referring to ..., Xsaid/stated/showed ._

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