Points to check in your writing

■ the passive forms is placed on /given to /by are preferable in English to the active

During the last two years of study, increasing emphasis is placed on practical training._

Figure 6 in the previous section shows that, for the Lorenz system, better results are given by quadratic than linear functions._

■ using passive constructions is one way of avoiding the first person singular in technical or scientific writing

It can be concluded that ...

■ In long sentences active constructions are better because the verb in passive constructions could come at the end of the sentence, which makes a construction clumsy.

passive

For this reason, the emission and excitation spectra of Hg2CL2 luminescence on virgin samples and samples exposed to UV light and X-ray were studied.

active

For this reason, the subject of the study was the emission and excitation spectra of.

■ Overuse of the passive should be avoided. Variation between active and passive verb forms keeps the reader more interested.

In domestic trade, more than 50% actual sales are derived from wood and building materials, while the rest comes from furnishing materials for buildings and engineering services.

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