What kinds of quotation are there

Quotations in your text can either be

■ direct: that is, you use the actual words of the original writer, or

■ indirect: that is, you paraphrase what the original source says by putting the ideas in your own words.

In general, it is preferable to use the indirect, or paraphrasing, method since this incorporates the other author's ideas better into the flow of your own text. However, there are occasions when direct quotations are better:

■ when the author expresses an idea in a particularly succinct or memorable way that it is impossible to improve on it

■ when the writer is such an important authority on the subject that his/her actual words are significant

■ when you want to avoid any ambiguity about the quoted ideas

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